Glass-Forming Charge for Hydrogen Containers
Theory and Methods of Glass-Forming Charge Synthesis to Produce Hydrogen Micro-Containers
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-THE/Physical and Theoretical Chemistry/Chemistry
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Universita degli Studi di Cassino/Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Italy, Cassino (FR)\nConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche / Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, Italy, Florence\nUniversity of Miami / Clean Energy Research Institute, USA, FL, Coral Gables\nAlfred University / School of Engineering, USA, NY, Alfred
Краткое описание проектаThe goal of the Project consists in writing a monograph in development of theory and methods of glass-forming charge synthesis to produce hydrogen micro-containers.
The acuteness of the problem is conditioned by the needs of actively performed researches in the sphere of material study, namely in producing glasses of prescribed properties; plasma physics; ecologically pure hydrogen power engineering and hydrogen transport. Substances in a glass-like (glass-form) state occur constantly under the effect of the Earth atmosphere containing hydrogen and its isotopes. They also contain hydrogen both in free and bound states in the form of compounds. However, gas permeation of gases as a whole and hydrogen permeation in particular is not investigated in detail, the data on the effect of separate glass components to some particular property are missing. Thus, the techniques of well-directed design and synthesis of glasses depending on hydrogen penetrability do not exist. The analysis of scientific literature demonstrated that some little data on gas permeation refer not to glass as a substance but to glass products (items). Moreover, their geometric parameters, temperature and gas pressure were taken into account, while the dependence on component composition was not studied.
Reference of participants.
The degree of the proposed Project Manager is Ph.D., Chemistry. His articles were published in the following scientific citation journals: Instruments and Experimental Techniques 1993, V. 36, N 36, P. 141-144; Fusion technology, 1995, V. 27, N 5, P. 1838-1843; Journal of Moscow Physical Society, 1998, N 8, P. 45-49; Glass and ceramics, 1998, № 1, P. 26-28; 1998, № 5, P. 20-24; 2001, № 7, P. 8-11; 2002, № 8, P. 3-6; 2002, № 11, P. 12-15; 2003, № 1, 8-11; 2003, № 8, P. 8-10; Material study, 2002, № 9, P. 5-9; 2003, № 5, P. 23-29; 2003, № 12, P. 23-27; Applied physics, 2003, № 5, P. 65-68 (the above-specified journals of Russia are republished in English) as well as in the Proceedings of the XVI International Congress on Glass (Madrid, Spain, 1989), IV International Conference on Materials Chemistry MC4 (Dublin, Ireland, 1999), First International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (Bordeaux, France, 1999), XXVII European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter (Moscow, Russia, 2002) etc. The Project participants are certified specialists; they are the authors and co-authors of articles published in Russia and abroad in scientific journals, collections of Conference Proceedings: Review of Scientific Instruments, 2000, V. 71, N 1, P. 82-87; Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Boston, USA, 1994), 1995, V. 372, P. 113-118, P. 209-214. S.O.Gladkov, D.Sc., Physics and Mathematics, Project participant, is an author of several monographs published in Russia and Germany: Physics of porous structures (M.: Nauka, 1997, 175 p.); Physics of composite materials: thermodynamic and dissipative properties (M.: Nauka, 1999, 330 с.), Dielectric properties of porous media (Springer, 2003, 261 p.) etc. The Manager assistant is a Deputy Chief Editor of the journal “Problems of atomic science and engineering”, series: Physics of Nuclear reactors" ISSN 0367-5203 and other scientific editions.
The participants of the advanced Project took part in Projects N 291, 1582, 1584, 1625, 1658, 1662, 1730, 1764, 1928, 2281, 2305, 2557, 2678, supported and funded by ISTC and in the publishing project RFBR 02-03-46024. The subjects of the realized Projects are by no means related to the subject of the advanced Project.
Category of development – fundamental researches.
As a result of investigations there will be prepared a monograph. The data that are supposed to be presented in the monograph will essentially extend the knowledge of fundamental properties of materials in a glass-like state. The uniqueness of information is conditioned by the fact that for the first time there is studied the interaction between hydrogen permeation of glasses and their structure-defining criteria; developed a technique of glass composition design according to the considered property and methods of charge synthesis. It is expected that a considerable part of the book would be dedicated to selection of criteria defining the structure of silicate glasses for micro-containers and substantiation of their connection with hydrogen permeation. Some of them are known today in glass science but they will be filled with new contents different from the traditional one. Besides there will be presented the criteria not known before, their physical essence and relation to gas permeability will be explained. The system of criteria will make it possible to select in a well-directed way the region of phase diagram of sodium-silicate system to design glass compositions and allow forecasting of direction of their permeation variation depending on structure criteria. Criterial estimations are to be necessarily applied in combination with nomograms that are also assumed to be presented in the monograph. An essential place in the book will be occupied by the technique of glass forming compositions calculation and optimization based on the calculation of oxide molecular volumes occupied by them in the glass structure. In a separate chapter there will be described the synthesis of inorganic glass-forming compositions The synthesis peculiarity consists in application of organic complexons traditionally used in analytical chemistry for qualitative determination of some ions in solutions but not applied before in chemical technology of glass. The calculation technique, charge compositions and methods of their synthesis in solutions are covered by RF patents: № 2235693, 2004, Bulletin of Inventions (BI) № 25, № 2033978, 1995, BI № 12; № 2036171, 1995, BI № 15; № 2036856, 1995, BI № 16; № 2205802, 2003, BI № 16. They can be applied to produce glass micro-spheres. The Projects participants know nothing of the researches and monographs identical to those declared.
- Participation in the Project makes it possible for the scientists and specialists involved in weapons production to redirect their potentialities to peaceful activity and apply their knowledge and experience to development of the theory and methods of glass-forming composition synthesis and preparation of the monograph.
- Participation in the Project will assist in integration of RFNC-VNIIEF scientists to the International Scientific Community, mutually beneficial exchange by experience and developments and immediate contacts at the scientific Conferences.
Scope of works.
The following directions and stages of works are proposed to be studied and fulfilled in the course of the Project realization:
- investigation in development of the theory and methods of charge synthesis for the production of hydrogen micro-containers;
- writing of a monograph in Russian;
- preparation of electron version of the monograph in English.
Role of foreign collaborators.
- Information exchange in the course of Project realization;
- Assistance and support of the Project participants in visiting International Meetings;
- Scientific reviewing of the monograph;
- Assistance in promotion and advertising of the monograph in science-engineering editions, educational and science and research institutions abroad.
Technical Approach and Methodology.
Analysis of literature demonstrated that little data available on gas permeation refers not to glass as a substance but to glass-like products; the dependence on component composition is not studied. It is assumed that in the course of works on the Project the information data base would be expanded through INTERNET resources and literary sources (journal articles, books, Conference materials) their subject to be similar or allied to the declared Project. Special emphases will be laid on generalization and systematization of the acquired information; substantiation of selecting criteria characterizing the structure of silicate glasses; their connection with hydrogen permeation; development of nomograms that will make it possible to reasonably select the region of phase diagram of sodium-silicate system to design glass compositions; forecasting of a tendency of their permeation variation depending on the change of structure criteria. It is assumed that there would be cited the developed by the author calculation and optimization technique of glass-forming compositions content that is based on the determination of molecular volumes of oxides in the glass structure with further determination of molar percents. Besides, there will be given the compositions for micro-spheres production and methods of their synthesis realized using solution method. It is expedient to apply for this purpose both inorganic and organic materials not used before in chemical technology of glass. Originality of developments is confirmed by RF patents.
After the versions of the monograph text in Russian and English are ready they will be recorded on electron carriers and in this form the monograph – after the advertisements are prepared – will be presented in home and foreign science and technology editions specialized in material study, for example: “Glass and ceramics”, “Material study”, “World glass”, “Physics and Chemistry of glass”, "International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology", "Facets", "Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids", "Journal of Materials Chemistry" etc.