Hydrogen Trapping and Release
Hydrogen Trapping and Release at Plasma and Ion Interaction with Solids
Tech Area / Field
- FUS-MCS/Magnetic Confinement Systems/Fusion
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Safronova O N
MIFI, Russia, Moscow
- Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow\nA.N.Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russia, Moscow
- Sandia National Laboratories, USA, CA, Livermore\nMax-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany, Garching\nNagoya University, Japan, Nagoya
Project summaryHydrogen-solid interaction has been a widely investigated research topic for about a century all over the world. Relatively recently, hydrogen plasma-surface interactions became attractive both from the fundamental and technological points of view. In conditions of plasma impact, the classical knowledge becomes invalid. New processes enter into the play, giving new experimentally observed features, which are not covered by traditional models.
This science is interdisciplinary field shared by plasma physics and physics of solids; and investigation of this type can give new fundamental knowledge in both fields.
The practical merit of the research is connected with many technical applications. Particularly, these are: tritium safety of thermonuclear reactors, tritium beds, tritium-hydrogen exchange in tritiated materials, vacuum pumps for hydrogen evacuation, surface modification for many applications including microelectronics, hydrogen fuel cells etc.
Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has estimated tritium related problems as a key issue in development of the thermonuclear reactor and initiated a Coordinative Research Program (CRP) on Tritium Aspects of Thermonuclear Reactors, which involves research groups from Southern America, Europe, Japan, and Russia. The purpose of CRP is coordination of the researches in this field among the international community with the final goal of creation of the database for further use in development of the fusion reactor. The ISTC Project proposed will be oriented mainly on the tasks connected with implementation of this particular IAEA CRP. The ISTC Project manager is involved in this IAEA CRP; and the collaborators proposed for this ISTC Project are experts of IAEA also involved in the IAEA CRP. In this aspect, successful project completion will serve to the international fusion community.
The Project meets the Goals and objectives of ISTC. It will provide weapon scientist in the CIS an opportunity to redirect their knowledge to peaceful activities (16 people of the level of Doctor and Candidate of Sciences will be involved). It will promote integration of scientists of CIS into the international scientific community (the project will be performed as a part of international Research Program coordinated by IAEA). It supports basic researches for peaceful purposes, particularly in the field of radiational safety of the new energy source.
The researches belong to the category of Basic Researches in definitions accepted by ISTC. The researches will lead to a better understanding of fundamental aspects of hydrogen behaviour in solids in specific conditions of plasma interaction. It is expected to obtain data on hydrogen traping, release, transport, hydrogen-defect interaction, isotopic exchange, detritiation, permeation, radiation damage, surface degradation and modification due to hydrogen implantation. The project will give a contribution to the database planned to be collected by IAEA for further use in international fusion programs.
Three institutions of CIS are involved in the Project: Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPHI), Nuclear Fusion Institute of Russian Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” (NFI RRC KI), and Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC RAS). Totally 41 researches will be involved.
The Collaborators for the project are recognized experts of IAEA in the field. Manager and Sub-Managers of the Project have been collaborating with the Collaborators proposed for this Project for many years. Previous years the collaboration has being developed in the following directions, which will be developed further in the process of the project implementation: mutual visits of researchers for the period from several days to several months for joint researches; acceptance of graduate and PhD students for studying; contracts for doing researches in Russia; participation in joint international projects (including ISTC Project); joint organization of International Workshops on the topic of the present Project (they have been organized in the USA, Japan, Europe, and Russia); joint publications; regular information exchange and discussions of the results obtained; collaboration in other fields related to the Project proposed.
The conditions of plasma-surface interaction vary in the reactor. Therefore, it is planned to investigate plasma-surface interaction by using various facilities with different fluxes, energies, and impinging particle compositions. The same materials and possible effects will be cross-checked in different experimental conditions. For these purposes, three basically different types of installations will be used: high flux plasma facilities, low temperature and low density plasma facilities, and ion beam facilities.
High flux plasma beam facilities are owned by RRC KI and MEPHI. Two installations are placed at RRC KI: plasma-beam discharge and RF high density discharge. MEPHI has a plasma-beam installation. The beams can be of various energies, densities, and ion-to-electron compositions. All of them can be burned either in pure hydrogen and deuterium or with adding oxygen and carbon or adding metal vapours to model scrape-of-layer and pertor plasmas. The targets can be biased to investigate the role of plasma electrons and ions. In the plasma beam machines, various gaseous environments can be arranged to investigate an interaction of the beam with the material shielded by high gas pressure.
Low flux plasma discharge facilities are operating at MEPHI and IPC RAN. There are several installations available at these institutions. A sample can be either immersed in plasma or be kept under negative or positive bias to extract ions and electrons preferentially. Impurities, like oxygen or carbon or metal vapours can be introduced to investigated interaction of contaminated plasma with the target material.
Ion beam facilities are available at MEPHI and IPC RAN. There are several mass and energy separated ion beams including a dual-beam facility of MEPHI. The ions have different energies ranging from several eV to several tens of keV. It is also planned to use mixtures of ions, which can be produced either in a dual-beam system or by synthesis of molecular ions like ArD and CD. Using ion beams one can get a more quantitative information about physical processes involved.
For analyses of the targets subjected to plasma and ion beams the following analytical equipment is available: RGA, SIMS, AES, XPS, SEM, TEM, AFM.
Computer modelling of hydrogen behaviour will be performed by using TMAP computer code approved by ITER central team. In addition, other codes available at MEPHI and RRC KI will be used.