Nano-Materials in Metal-Matrix Composites
Metal Matrix Composites on the Basis of Nano-Materials
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
MISIS (Steel and Alloys), Russia, Moscow
- Institute of Electrophysics, Russia, Sverdlovsk reg., Ekaterinburg\nAll-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials named after A. Bochvar, Russia, Moscow
- Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt / Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Germany, Karlsruhe
Project summaryDuring the last years metal-matrix composites (MMC) have being examined and applied in industry rather intensively. It might be explained by their enhanced (improved) characteristics and combination of those properties that can’t be attained neither in metals no in alloys [1,2].
The special attention is given to casting MMC, for example, SiC-Al MMC. But the method of their production has some bottle-necks. First of all it’s the poor wettability (even unwettability). The poor wettability can be improved by different methods, for example, through modification of a solid component or introduction in a liquid phase some microadditions that can improve the wettability. These methods on the one hand is rather labour-intensive ones whereas on the other hand result in properties deterioration .
The project at issue is aimed at the investigation and working out new MMC production methods, in particular, application of surface active nano-powders (less than 1 mkm) for matrix and enforcing elements that allow to improve the wettability and working properties. The present methods of casting MMC do not use SiC particles less than 5-10 mkm size. The new improved MMC can be applied in electronics, electrical engineering, metal-optical systems, etc.
The properties of nano-particles being determined largely by the production method, two kinds of nano-powders at least will be examined in the projects as well as the interaction between the nano-particles and enforcing particles (SiC and metal-oxides).
The process of powders mixture (one of them, at least, to be a nano-powder) will be investigated. It will be noted that nano-particles may cause interaction both in nano-particles - large-size particles subsystem and between large particles themselves. The main attention in the project will be given to the first-type interaction.
The project includes investigation of intensive impulse-mechanical treatment of metal-ceramic powder mixtures in vacuum that allow obtain the high-density specimens and structure modification of produced composites under high plastic deformation. The technology is based on a rapid impulse displacement of medium at a speed of 30m/s and impulse pressure 1-3 Gpa produced in magnetic and impulse equipment designed in IEF. The process being carried out in vacuum, it’s possible to avoid and monitor oxygen content and others undesired contaminations in metal matrix. The two methods of MMC production will be compared. The first one includes high-density impulse powder pressing (up to 90-95 %) and further casting treatment. The second one implies production of high density MMC billet by magnetic and impulse forging. The possibility of regular close packing nano-structure of composite produced by mechanical treatment and other additional methods will be examined.
The new technologies allow to produce new materials. The large part of the project includes investigation of working properties, correlation between metal-matrix composition and their characteristics. All properties will be brought together in a data base.
Project executors have been obtained sufficient experience to carry out the project at issue. Project manager from Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys (MISA) had scholarship in the Delft University (the Netherlands) on the topic «Metal Matrix Composites». MISA have 5 patents on the topic «Metal matrix Composites». Institute of Electrophysics of Ural Branch Academy of Science has worked out the method of production of metal and oxide nano-powders by electrical explosion of wire as well as methods of dynamic densification that have been shown in the ISTC project No. 483 [4 - 9]. Scientific Research Center of Russian Federation «Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials» have experience in nano-powders production and producing various materials from nano-powders. The institutions posses experimental and analytical equipment the project to be implemented and qualified staff.
As a result the new fundamental knowledge of interaction between nano - and microparticles of different materials and MMC properties will be obtained as well as the technologies of improved MMC will be finished.