Completion of ITER Tritium Circuit Development
Completion of a Closed Tritium Circuit Device, Investigation of Processes, Manufacturing, and Tests of Models of ITER Tritium Loop Components; Experimental Simulation and Theoretical Analysis of Plasma Effects of ITER In-Vessel Structure Components; Radia
Tech Area / Field
- FUS-HSF/Hybrid Systems and Fuel Cycle/Fusion
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Ryabeva E V
Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow
- VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk\nATOMSAFETY, Russia, Moscow reg., Sergiev Posad\nNIIEFA Efremov, Russia, St Petersburg\nVNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
Project summaryPurpose of the Proposal - attraction of the highly qualified Science and Technology personnel of Russian nuclear defense organizations to participation in work on creation of the International Experimental Tokamak Reactor ITER over and above certain amount of works, carried out by Russian Party according to Quadripartite Intergovernmental Agreement.
Under the contents the given Proposal assumes further development of work, carried out according to the project N 350 ISTC.
During fulfillment of the project N 350 parts of pisions of the nuclear defense organizations was reoriented on a peace theme, that has allowed more than 200 experts in development of the nuclear weapon to apply the experience and technical equipment of the defense organizations to the solving the problems of controlled nuclear fusion. The continuation of the project according to the given Proposal gives these experts long prospect of further work in new area of application of their knowledge and experience. It completely corresponds to the ISTC objective - attraction of the developers of the weapon of mass destruction to a peace scientific theme with support of researches in the field of energy production and environment protection.
The works, stipulated given Proposal, are continuation of researches, carried out according to the project N 350 ISTC on four themes:
Theme 1. Finish of development of a closed tritium loop, research of processes, manufacturing and tests of ITER tritium path component models.
The main tasks here are research of technological processes, development, manufacturing and test of the ITER vacuum-tritium system equipment prototypes; improvement of technological modes of preparation, injection, vacuum pumping, storage and clearing of fuel mixture, determination of operating life of the equipment working in tritium environment, and also improvement of hydrogen isotopes sorption separation technology.
This work, while resolving the problems related to ITER tritium systems, permits to create a broader basis for wider work in interests of development of nuclear fusion power, for example: for a volumetric neutron source (VNS-tokamak), for a source of neutrons based on muon catalysis (MKS) and for a demonstration fusion reactor DEMO. It will be necessary to develop a fuel cycle for neutron sources - VNS-tokamak or MKS - that will be utilized for testing structural materials and the blanket modules, for nuclear fuel processing, in precritical nuclear reactors and etc.
Theme 2. Computational - theoretical and experimental simulation of plasma effects on ITER in-vessel construction elements, radiation tests of ITER diagnostic system elements, neutronic tests of radiation shielding models.
The work in this theme is oriented to computational - theoretical and experimental validation, study and optimization of possible design solutions modifications for the blanket, radiation shielding and reactor diagnostic systems. This work does not duplicate the work on major technical solution of the ITER project, but includes additional validation of main design solutions to be applied in the project as well as suggests proposal on their optimization and modification. Thus, new experimental facilities, technical approaches and computer codes, developed in the defense complex institutes, are involved in work on the ITER project.
Use of laboratory electrophysical installations, explosion and explosion-driven-magnetic generators (RFNC "Arzamas-16") for ITER design elements tests on a pulsing power and electrical loading with the subsequent modification of computer code, is supposed; experimental research of ITER neutron shielding efficiency with the check of accuracy of used computational models; experimental study of diagnostic materials radiation stability with use of the electron accelerators and pulsing reactors; numerical modeling of plasma interaction with materials of ITER first wall and pertor protective screens under evolution of "disruption" instability with account of radiation transfer and plasma shielding effects.
Theme 3. Experimental and theoretical research of safety problems, connected to application of beryllium, tungsten and carbon in ITER reactor, the forecast of tritium radiation conditions in an environment of ITER reactor.
Developing ITER reactor safety issues, a number of factors affecting safety should be taken into account. They are: formation mixed tungsten and carbon products of erosion, tungsten scattering by plasma, influence of heat cycling and action of neutron radiation on beryllium structure changing, in particular on its swelling, hydrogen isotopes accumulation in non-irradiated and neutrons irradiated beryllium, problems of beryllium wastes detritisation, tritium desorption from neutron irradiated beryllium under its emergency interaction with air. Will be developed the primary proposals on technology of fusion reactor beryllium wastes detritisation. The defensive organization tritium experience will be used for the analysis of data about tritium distribution in air near to the tritium enterprise and for estimation of expected ITER tritium outflow.
Theme 4. Development of tritiated target units for high intensity generators of 14 MeV neutrons.
In the work, making by Russia on the ITER program, the generators of 14 MeV neutrons are used in material testing and neutronic research. Powerful generators with the yield of 2 ґ 1013 neutrons per second were developed in the USSR. However, the technology of tritiated targets for neutron generators appeared outside of Russia when CIS formatted. Today it results in delays with fulfillment of the scheduled obligations and gives rise in the cost of work done in support of ITER.
Besides of tritiated targets technology and manufacturing development it is necessary to solve the problems of tritium interaction with constructional materials, including high temperatures (~ 900 K) conditions - to determine the equipment life time in the tritium environment, to fulfill methods of materials detritisation for regeneration of used targets and methods of technological rigging deactivation, to estimate probable tritium outflow from the work safety point of view and etc.
Therefore practical work with tritium and potential of the defensive organizations will allow not only to develop technologies of tritiated target units of high intensity generators of 14 MeV neutrons, but also to receive the additional experimental information on the tritium manipulation, which would be useful for ITER project.