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Fire Protection

#0400


Fire Protection

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
16.05.1995

Leading Institute
TsNIISM, Russia, Moscow reg., Khotkovo

Supporting institutes

  • Research Institute for Fire Defence, Russia, Moscow reg., Balashikha-3\nTsKB for Naval Equipment RUBIN, Russia, St Petersburg\nInstitute of Appied Mechanics, Russia, Udmurtia, Izhevsk

Collaborators

  • Building Research Establishment / Fire Research Station, UK, Watford\nBuilding Research Institute, Japan, Ibaraki\nBrown & Root Limited, UK, London\nWeidleplan Consulting GmbH, Germany, Stuttgart\nDanish Institute of Fire Technology, Denmark, Birkeroed\nPansat Enterprises, Inc., USA, NJ, Ramsey

Project summary

Project Goal -to create new methods and means for increasing fire resistance of load-bearing and fire localizing structures of NPP-facilities, as well as other valuable, high-responsible and fire-hazardous facilities of civil engineering.

The urgency of the problem to be solved arises from continuing growth of property losses and environmental damage caused by fires hazardous and high-responsible facilities. Its solution is most important for NPP-facilities, on account of hard catastrophic consequences in the occasion of fire, as well as for sea oilproducing platforms, commercialfleet vessels, storage tanks and transportation means for inflammable, explosive and toxic substances, for load-bearing and fire-localizing underground structures, engineering and banking equipment. To decrease the losses and damage consequences caused by fire it is need to rise the fire resistance of load-bearing and fire localizing facilities. The fire resistance of structures is rised by means of fire protection. Fire protection is to block the heat flux from the flame to the object and traditionally it is done by concreting (plastering) of constructions, as well as using of heat-insulating shields and heat-absorbing coatings. However, the existent methods to estimate ire resistance are not enough exact, because don't allow to take into account physic chemical phenomena into material when high temperature, complicative structure, shape and the like, and traditional fire-protective means are often not sufficient enough, have large sizes and mass being inconvenient in manufacturing and use.

Technological Approach novety

A new mathematical models and methods of estimating structures fire resistance with perspective fire protection are being developed allowing more considerable correct as compared with the traditional ones take into account there complicative structure and shape, as well assuch of physic-chemical phenomena as thermal decomposition (gasification), filtration in pores and intake of active gases into the subsurface zone, swelling (shrinkage), as well as corresponding changes of material's composition, structure and properties. Purposeful intensification physic-chemical phenomena on basis mathematical modeling's results gives possibility to rise efficiency of blocking the heat flux from the flame to the object and, accordingly, its fire resistance.

The new means to rise fire resistance of structures is composite fire protection which is an optimal combination of layers made from decomposing and swelling coatings, as well as thermally stable heat-insulating materials with interlayers reflecting radiation heat. For easy production, mounting at facilities and use, it can be made both in the form of flexible mats an coverings based on a thermally stable fabric and in the form of relatively rigid panels or casings, manufactured industrially using advanced technologies.

The principle of composite fireprotection opens up wide prospects for using advanced algorithms of optimum design which allow, for each specific type of facilities to be protected, to compute composition and structure of fire protection thus providing - at a given reliability rate - the required fire-resistance level of the facility.

Quantitative optimisation of composite fire-protection and proven level of its reliability are possible only with an adequate-to-nature mathematical model of heat-and-mass transfer in the system "flame-fire protection-object" explicitly considering the composition and structure of fire protection as well as the above physic-chemical phenomena. Despite the obvious complexity of such a model, its development - in the Project framework - is possible due to experience and scientific background gained by the performers in the course of their long-standing and devoted work on heat protection of special structures.

Expected Results

1. Adequate-to-nature mathematical models, algorithms and programs to estimate parameters of conjugated heat-and-mass transfer in the system "flame-fire protec-tion-object", heat and stress-strain state of load-bearing structures with fire protection which have complective structure and shape, as well as actual structures fire resistance levels.

2. Procedures to choose a method and optimal composite fire protection design.

3. Typical structural solution for optimal fire protection.

4. Experimental data to prove the obtained level of fire resistance for structures.

Their scientific importance consists in filling up the gap in the field of estimative determination fire resistance levels for the large-scale constructures, wich have complicative structure and shape with physic-chemical phenomena, comprehensive modelling for work process of fire protective systems, which are complicated in composition, structure, form and behaviour in fire conditions, as well as in the field of optimal fire protection design.

Practical use of new estimative fire resistance methods and means of structures fire protection, to be developed in the Project realization, at fire-hazardous and high-responsible facilities, such as NPP-facilities will allow to minimize property losses and environmental damage in case of natural and technogenic catastrophes.

The foreign collaborators role consists in estimating correction of organization investigation's goals, as well as in discussion scientific and practical results to be obtained during PROJECT realization. Besides they can be the potentical production, which will be obtained during its realizarion.

There have been received already the official supports from: Fire Research Station (Building Research Establishment, United Kingdom), Head Fire Safety Building Research Institute (Ministry of Construction Japanese Government), Danish Institute of Fire Technology (Copenhagen), Weidleplan Consalting GmbH (PLANER. ARCHITEKTEN . INGENIEURE. Stuttgart), Brown & Root Limited (London), PANS AT ENTERPRISES, INC (Ramsey, New Jersey). There are noted, particularly, the novelty of proposal approach to solve problem of fire protection, as well as that project foresees conducting not only profound experimental and theoretical investigations, but and development specimens of perspective fire protection which will be tesred acceding to internationl standards. This allows estimate impartial the obtained results.


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