Sensors for Measuring Magnetic Fields
Controllable Magnetosensitive Sensors Intended for Operation in Extreme Physical Fields
Tech Area / Field
- INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
- INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
- INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
- PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Lapidus O V
NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow
- Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, Russia, Moscow reg., Chernogolovka\nJoint Institute of Nuclear Research, Russia, Moscow reg., Dubna
- Technische Universität Dresden / Institut fuer Energiemaschinen und Maschinenlabor, Germany, Dresden\nInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain, Madrid
Project summaryThe project objectives are:
1) The technological development and design of controllable magnetosensitive elements (MSE) made on the basis of designed before technology “silicon on insulator” (SOI), with the subsequent manufacturing of the SOI MSE prototypes capable to function under extreme conditions of the ionizing and corpuscular radiations, as well as in a wide temperature range from temperatures of liquid helium up to, at least, 150 °С, and maintaining their functionalities under simultaneous exposure of radiation and temperature fields;
2) Fabrication and examination of prototypes of the magnetometric equipment on the basis of the MSE.
State of the art
The successful solution of many modern scientific and technical problems is grounded on an authentic and reliable monitoring of a magnetic field under extreme conditions of exposure to a high level of radiation and elevated or cryogenic temperature. Examples of such problems are:
- Physical experiments on high energy particle sources (radiation fields), [1, 2];
- Control systems of automobile motors (temperature fields);
- Geophysical measurements in deep oil and gas wells (temperature fields, and radiation fields in particular cases);
- Safe operation of medical accelerators and radiotomographs (radiation fields), ;
The solution of numbered problems is impeded by lack of the magnetosensitive elements combining a high magnetosensitivity with an operational reliability under extreme conditions.
It is supposed, that such MSE will be fabricated on the basis of «silicon on insulator» (SOI) structures where a thin silicon layer is separated from a silicon substrate by a buried insulator layer. The construction of developed element will be a four-pole variable silicon resistor with a two-gate metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal control system. The elements magnetoresponse is caused by the Hall effect. Earlier participants of this project have shown , that on the basis of SOI structure it is possible to create such type of MSE. In this case an upper gate that is similar one of usual MOS transistors is formed on an insulating film located on the outer surface of the silicon layer of the SOI structure. The buried insulator layer of the SOI structure and a silicon substrate playing the role of the lower gate. Application of SOI structures as a material of the MSE is caused by the following reasons:
- The SOI devices have genetical ability to operate at much higher temperatures than their silicon analog ;
- The SOI devices have much more irradiation stability than silicon analogs ;
- The technology of a buried insulator layer formation by nitrogen and oxygen ion implantation into silicon (the SIMON process - Separation by Implanted Oxygen and Nitrogen)  designed by participants of the project opens up the possibility to improve stability of SOI MSE against radiation impacts.
Preliminary examinations have shown, that field control of the SOI MSE parameters gives the following opportunities:
1. Minimizations of power consumption (the operating current of the SOI MSE is 10 … 1000 times smaller, than of any other semiconductor Hall sensors or magnetoresistors);
2. Widening the dynamic range of the SOI MSE magnetosensitivity up to (10-7 … 10) Tl, which is inaccessible for conventional silicon magnetosensors and magnetoresistors;
3. Control of the magnetosensitivity coefficient temperature dependence and extending the operating temperature range;
4. Improvement of the SOI MSE stability against radiation due to various versions of electronic circuits of output signal processing which two-gate system ensures.
Making of sensory equipment on the basis of the SOI MSE will allow to develop new measuring systems for different branches of science, industry and medicine.
Competence of the project participants
The participants of the project have a significant set of investigations and developments in fields of science related to the project.
The RIPT has a long-term experience in development of circuit solutions, electronic devices for different purposes and methods intended to measure physical fields from different sources, in particular - electromagnetic fields of ELF, LF, HF, and microwave frequencies ranges (including those in a combination with the exposure to ionizing radiation). The RIPT has a unique experimental experience and instrumentation for making the measuring equipment and examination of its performances in a wide range of external physical factors. The RIPT is leading organization on the problems of electromagnetic compatibility of radioelectronic and electrotechnical equipment.
The IMT RAS has a long-term experience of investigations in the field of radiation physics of semiconductors and development of radiation technology processes. In particular, the fundamentals of implantation process for SOI structure production have been created, features of the radiation impact on components of SOI structures were studied, design of some microelectronic SOI elements operating at elevated temperatures were proposed. The institute has a great set of technological equipment and techniques for studying the parameters of semiconductor materials and device structures.
The JINR has a great experience in production of precision magnetometric instrumentation and magnitocalibration stands; in monitoring magnetic fields at the JINR accelerators in radiation fields. The JINR unique base installations (IBR-2 reactor, different particle accelerators, cryogenic setups) allow performing the planned investigations in a wide range of extreme physical fields.
1. The physical model of MSE basic parameters dependence on electrophysical (distribution of electrostatic potentials) and thermal physics (ambient temperature, phenomena of a self-heating) parameters of the SOI structures, and alternative circuits (different variants of gate control and input signal processing circuit ) will be developed;
2. A technological flowchart of the SOI MSE manufacturing will be developed taking into account specificity of their operation in extreme fields;
3. Prototypes of the MSE will be produсed, and dependence of their parameters on electronic scheme of output signal forming and processing circuits of the MSE will be examined;
4. The MSE behavior under exposure to corpuscular (neutrons) and ionizing (g-quanta) radiation will be studied;
5. The MSE behavior in the temperature range 10 – 420 K will be studied;
6. The MSE behavior at simultaneous action of radiation and thermal fields will be studied;
7. Prototypes of the magnetometric equipment on the basis of the MSE will be fabricated and studied; optimized electronic circuit solutions will be selected.
Realization of the ISTC objectives
Activity of most participants of the project has been related to development of arm systems and accompanying technologies. Their experience is rather valuable for elaborations in the field of high technologies. Therefore their participation in the project will help to reorient high-skilled specialists in the field of armaments to peace activity. The ISTC support of this project will promote development of applied peaceful researches, and peaceful technological development. This project will promote development of devices and instruments stimulating the advent of leading scientific and technical centres of Russia to the market of civil technologies.
For reaching planned objectives it is supposed to perform the following activities.
1. To develop a physical model of MSE basic parameters dependence on electrophysical (distribution of electrostatic potentials) and thermal physics (ambient temperature, phenomena of a self-heating) parameters of the SOI structures, and alternative circuits (different variants of gate control and input signal processing circuit);
2. To develop a technological flowchart of the SOI MSE manufacturing taking into account specificity of their operation in extreme fields;
3. To produce prototypes of the MSE, and to examine a dependence of their parameters on electronic scheme of output signal forming and processing circuits;
4. To study the MSE behavior under exposure to corpuscular (neutrons) and ionizing (g-quanta) radiation;
5. To study the MSE behavior in the temperature range from 10 up to 420 K;
6. To study the MSE behavior at simultaneous action of radiation and thermal field;
7. To fabricate and examine prototypes of the magnetometric equipment on the basis of the MSE; to select optimized electronic circuit solutions.
Role of foreign collaborators
Teamwork with foreign collaborators in the lines of inquiry close to subjects of the project is already carried out. It is planned to continue and expand this collaboration and to send quarter, annual and final ISTC reports. According to the schedule it is planned to carry out teamworks with the use of the equipment specimens of the Russian and foreign teams. It is supposed that participants of the project will carry out workshops and scientific seminars with foreign collaborators.
The technical approach and the methodology
Scientific and technical approaches for reaching the objectives of the project and taking of expected results will be founded on technological and metodological basis of institutes - participants of the project. Specimens of the MSE will be manufactured, examinations of their parameters under exposure to temperature and radiation will be carried out, and prototypes of the magnetometric equipment will be fabricated and investigated on the basis of the resulted data.
1. The Magnet Project, Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 97-10, 2 May 1997.
2. V.K.Makoveev at al. The Magnetic Field Measuring of the EXCHARM Spectrometer. Proceedings of the 6th European Particle Accelerator Conference (EPAC-98), Stockholm, Sweden, June 1998.
3. A.Molodozhentsev at al. Ring design of the Prague synchrotron for cancer therapy. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics research B 139 (1998) 441-446.
4. A Akimov and all, “A controllable Resistor with Feature of a Field-Effect Transistor and Field-Effect Sensor”, Instruments and Experimental Techniques, v.41, №5, 1998, p. 706-709.
5. M.Barabanenkov and all, “Perspectives, Science and Technologies for Novel Silicon on Insulator Devices”, Abstr. of NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Kyiv, 1998, p. 105-106.
6. J.-L.Leray, “Buried oxides: where we have been and where we are going ”, in ‘Amorphous insulating thin films”, R.Devine (ed), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995, p. 10-21.
7. V.N.Mordkovich. Silicon-on-Insulator Structures as a Promising Material of Microelectronics. Materials for Electronics, 1998, No. 2, p. 4-8.