Synthesis of the Materials by Ballistic Method
Multi-user Application of the TsNIIMash Large-scale Ballistic Facility.
Tech Area / Field
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
3 Approved without Funding
NPP Ballistic Technologies, Russia, Moscow reg., Korolev
Project summaryThe aim of the project is to organize, using the direct funding, an open access to the TsNIIMASH largescale ballistic facility for a wide circle of research organizations and inpidual scientists for carrying out their own research, so that later (after completion of the Project) a cooperation of interested organizations can be established and the facility exploited under direct contracts with them.
It is planned to use the grants of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), INCO-COPERNICUS programme and money allocated from the Russian National Budget to prepare and conduct ballistic experiments within the project, i.e. to provide the facility to the international community of investigators free of charge on the basis of their preliminary submitted and approved requests, or to investigators working within ISTC projects or INCO-COPERNICUS programme, if such a necessity arise. The ISTC money are used to cover expenses to prepare and conduct ballistic experiments for investigators from the USA, Japan and Russian organizations. The INCO-COPERNICUS programme funds will be used to cover expenses to prepare and conduct ballistic experiments for investigators from the countries of the European Community, and Russian organizations. The Ballistic Technologies, being an organization both coordinating the project and participating in it, will conduct its own research program on the money allocated from the Russian National Budget. If one of the financing sources mentioned above fails to provide the financial support, then all organizations and inpiduals assigned to this fund are excluded from participation in the project.
All copyrights and rights of intellectual property arising in accordance with the investigations conducted by the participants which were authorized to conduct ballistic experiments at the facility within the project belong to the relevant project participants.
The TsNIIMASH large-scale ballistic facility is the largest and the most complicated test-bench in the world amongst its kind. With the caliber of 0.5 m it has the length of as much as 200 m. The ballistic facility was created in 1992 in the course of military conversion, on the basis of a large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel used since 1958 exclusively for narrowly specialized research for the development of strategic weapons and hitherto unavailable for civilian purposes. In the ballistic experiments on the facility, high impactor velocities and unique loading parameters (pressure, duration of loading, temperature and shear) are achieved, unattainable in their combination by other methods. The practicability of shock synthesis of diamond on the facility has already been demonstrated earlier. Due to the large (0.5 m) caliber of the facility, in ballistic experiments a large number of samples of various compositions can be loaded simultaneously. Thus the facility is well-suited for collective multi-direction research projects, involving large number of organizations. A solid body, when compressed to high pressures at the presence of certain activating factors, such as temperature and shear, can experience a vast spectrum of phase and other transfor-mations.
This provides an investigator opportunities to research:
• processes in numerous solid phase reactions that form meta-stable polycrystalline states with either amorphous or nano-phase structures which can possess perse valuable proper-ties (superconductivity at high critical parameters; unique magnetic, mechanical or catalytic characteristics);
• formation of compacts of powders of various materials, including diamond powders at densities close to the x-ray density;
• processes involving different polymorphous phase transformations, e.g. in carbon, boron nitride, etc.
Within the framework of the Project, technologies for the syntheses of novel materials with unique physical and chemical properties are expected to be developed. The most commercially promising of these technologies will be applied to develop industrial production on the facility, thus enabling us to meet the maintenance costs of the facility in the situation of unsufficient funding of scientific research.
The following additional directions of aeroballistic experiments were selected for the TsNII-MASH facility:
• Investigation of destruction dynamics of massive body colliding with a compact impactor;
• Investigation of combustion process in a fuel injected into a hypersonic air flow;
• Investigation of scram acceleration of a hypersonic projectile moving in the bore filled with an oxygen/hydrogen mix.
• Investigation of various methods of gasdynamic acceleration of projectiles to velocities over l0km/s.
The aeroballistic experiments within the project will be aimed to investigate the application problems as follows:
• protection of the Earth from collisions with asteroids;
• development of efficient scram-jets;
• development of cost-effective launchers to inject payloads into orbits around the Earth.