Foot and Mouth Disease Control Program in Kyrgyz Republic
Enhancement of the Foot and Mouth Disease Control Program in Kyrgyz Republic: Advancement in Diagnostic Assays and Control Measures
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M
Kyrgyz Research Institute of Livestock, Veterinary and Pastures, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Ministry of Agriculture / Close Joint Stock Company Altyn-Tamyr, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Iowa State University / Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics, USA, IA, Ames\nThe University of Georgia / College of Veterinary Medicine, USA, GA, Athens\nUnited States Department of Agriculture / Plum Island Animal Disease Center, USA, NY, Greenport\nColorado State University / College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, USA, CO, Fort Collins\nCanadian Food Inspection Agency / National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canada, MB, Winnipeg
Project summaryThe goal of the Project is to increase the efficiency of FMD control measures in the conditions of distant pasture cattle rearing, to establish modern diagnostic laboratory, to study the spread of FMD in the Republic under the conditions of extensive cattle rearing. Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) affects cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and wild ruminants, causing considerable economic damage, both through significant production losses in adult animals and death in young stock. The FMD virus is one of the “listed” diseases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (formerly known as the Office International des Epizooties, and still recognized by the abbreviation OIE), and is the single most important constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products. FMD control in countries that are free from the disease consists of slaughter of affected animals and animals suspected of being infected, whereas in countries that have endemic FMD, control is carried out by vaccination.
In the Kyrgyz Republic, the disease continues to spread because of the lack of modern diagnostic laboratory equipped with PCR and ELISA, and intra-republican inter-regional veterinary posts, insufficient immunity of animals to the virus, largely as a result of incomplete vaccination strategies. To control FMD in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is necessary to have a thorough diagnostic system, so that vaccination of those animals at greatest risk can be maintained.
The tendency for global distribution, highly contagious nature of the disease, the broad spectrum of susceptible animals, a large number of immunological types and subtypes of the causative agent, a variety of ways of secretion and distribution, the ability to be preserved for a long time both in external environment and in organisms of immune animals – all this causes a number of complex veterinary-sanitarian and economic problems. Rigid quarantine measures of FMD eradication disturb economic activities of agricultural enterprises and affect public, economic and interstate business relations. The FMD virus does not respect geographic or climatic boundaries and so spreads easily in a short time over extensive areas.
The best mechanism of FMD control would be to have an accurate and timely diagnostic capacity so that the locations of virus and potential spread could be more closely monitored. In this context, strategic vaccination could be practiced, and greatly limit the potential spread of this very economically severe disease. Unfortunately in Kyrgyz Republic there is no modern veterinary laboratory to meet the requirements of international organizations. Consequently, one of the main tasks of the Project is to establish a diagnostic laboratory with modern equipment which will help to organize properly veterinary-sanitarian measures against FMD and control measures to prevent from the infection and economical damage caused by FMD epizootics.
In different countries there are ranges of measures for FMD prophylaxis and eradication, which are determined by the specific epizootic situation, economic capacities and opportunities of a country, methods of animal husbandry and the level of science development.
In the countries free from FMD the basic measures are taken to prevent the virus transmission from outside, and according to their law strict measures must be taken to eradicate FMD focuses.
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