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Electrokinetic Technology of Soil Decontamination

#0857


Development and Application of the Technological Complex for Soil Decontamination from Radionuclides and Heavy Metals on the Basis of Special Electrode Devices

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
25.01.1997

Leading Institute
NPO Radon (2), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIKhT (Chemical Technology), Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Stoller Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Germany, Dresden\nTulane University Medical Center / Energy Spatial Analysis Research Laboratory, USA, LA, New Orleans\nUS Department of Energy, USA, DC, Washington

Project summary

Brief Task and Problems of the Project

The basic purpose of the given Project is development and application in real field conditions of an effective technological complex for soil decontamination from radionuclides and heavy metals on the basis of special electrode devices.

The majority of methods and technologies of soil decontamination is reduced to direct removal of contaminated soil with their subsequent processing or without it and deposition into RAW stores. Weight and volumetric quantity of element-contaminants, as the rule, is non-comparable with volumes of soil, being subject of RAW depositories. That in turn causes overflow of RAW stores and necessity of search of new places for RAW deposition.

As a manner of soil decontamination development and application of IN SITU technology is offered. It is based on use of well known electrokinetic (electrosedimentation method), membrane and sorption technologies.

The basis of known electrokinetic processes of soil decontamination from radionuclides and heavy metals is ions moving in a field of a constant current. If such field to create in a ground, contaminated with ions of radionuclides or heavy metals, these ions will be moved to the cathode or anode direction (depending on ions charge). It is IN SITU method. In a general case technology includes the following main actions:


- transferring of elements-contaminants in the mobile form (as ions) in region of contamination with the help of the additive special reagents;
- creation of a field of a constant current with a given arrangement of electrodes in region of contamination;
- moving and accumulation of elements-contaminants in the near electrode space;
- elements-contaminants removal.

At realization of researches the use of special membranes for accumulation of ions - contaminants in near electrode space is planned.

The principle of such electrode device action is, that cathions-desorbents migrate through a membrane under action of electrical and electroosmosis forces and form the front of concentration. Ions-contaminants concentrate in a solution of near electrode space and then periodically or continuously are pumped out and set off on clearing.

During realization of experiments is planned to develop and to check up a few types of electrode devices, which separately and as electrode batteries will be used for soil decontamination in laboratory and field conditions.

During realization of the project is also planned to test a few types of membranes and chemical reagents for optimization of soil decontamination process.

Thus the process of soil decontamination will be realized in a uniform technological complex, allowing carrying out soil clearing directly on the location of specific contamination.

The decision of the given problem within the framework of the considered Project will allow more effective to carry out soil clean up from radionuclides and heavy metals, excepting excessive removing of a ground from a place of contamination and technogenious violation of a landscape. During researches operation on selection of desorb chemical reagents, in particular for 137Cs, development of new designs of electrodes with use of new materials and membrane technology will be spent. The made electrodes will be previously tested in laboratory, and then in field conditions on real contaminated soils. The given way will allow to accumulate elements-contaminants in a small around-electrode space with subsequent sedimentation of components of this contamination on sorbents and placement them in storage of RAW.

In the implementation of the given problem the qualified scientists and engineers will participate which attended earlier to questions, connected to technology of uranium production realization of nuclear tests.

Participation of the scientists in the Project will allow to keep scientific potential of the organizations-participants and to use received results and scientific knowledge in adjacent branches.


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