Development of Technology of Ecotoxicological Control
Development of the System of Ecotoxicological Control in the Territories Subjected to Radioactive and/or Chemical Contamination
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
- ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment
- INF-IMA/High-Definition Imaging and Displays/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
Russian Academy of Sciences / Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russia, Moscow
- Medical Radiological Scientific Center, Russia, Kaluga reg., Obninsk\nScientific & Production Association “Typhoon”, Russia, Kaluga reg., Obninsk
- FENIXTEC, Fenix Technology International, INC., USA, DC, Washington
Project summaryIt is now considered, that the most adequate characteristics of ecotoxicological state of the environmental objects is given by cytogenetic methods. However, the large labour input and duration of cytogenetic researches, necessity of engaging of the competent experts, keep under the wide extension of these methods.
Earlier, in the frame of the ISTC project #547-98, the feasibility of creation of a highly sensitive automated technique for analysis of chromosome damages, providing efficient estimation of genotoxicity effects has been proved.
The proposed project presents the final stage of the investigation that has been started in frames of the ISTC project #547-98 and it is directed on the development of the technique for ecotoxicological environmental monitoring of the environmental state.
The novelty of aproach to solution of this problem is the using of new highly sensitive technique for evaluation of genotoxicity of native environmental samples, based on analysis of frequency and types of structural mutations induced in chromosomes of mammalian cell test-cultures.
According existing protocols recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and accepted in Russia, the analysis of genotoxicity is realized only in relation to the solutions of inpidual pollutants or extracts from natural or drinking water, or soil. Under the analysis on genotoxicity the samples of natural and sewage waters undergo by sterilization. In the result characteristics of these samples of waters essentially change.
Science-methodical achievement in the field of cytogenetic researches is developed in the frame of ISTC project # 547-98 “Method of measurements for evaluation of mutagenic activity of drinking, natural, sewage waters and soil extracts”, not requiring sterilization of analysing water samples.
The using of this method led to receipt of a number of new basic results important for the understanding of evolution processes in aquatic ecosystems. Under the analysis of native samples of natural waters the determinative contribution to genotoxicity of aqueous medium of water-soluble unstable substances, not extracting by organic solvents is found. It has been found that the dose-effect curve for the mutagenicity of highly toxic water-nonsoluble (hydrophobic) extracting compounds depends essentially on the form they take in aqueous medium.
These results show the necessity of correcting the existing protocols for testing the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of chemical compounds (taking in medical preparations) with the use of in vitro short-term tests including those recommended by the WHO.
The discussion of the obtained results at international conferences and symposia has shown the wide interest to it of world scientific public.
The large interest in prolongation of the project is exhibited and from the side of collaborator (L. Kelner, USA).
The development of main procedures of the highly sensitive technique for evaluation of the mutagenic activity of environmental objects, which has been achieved in the course of ISTC project #547-98, allows to proceed to the realization of the next stage. The main efforts on this stage will be directed to the development (on the base of “Method of determination of genotoxicity of aqueous media”, which will be standardized and certificated in the course of project) of the specific industrial device for ecotoxicological monitoring of territories that are chemically and/or radioactively contaminated.
The objective of the second stage of the work is to reach the practical verification of the operational technique for evaluation of mutagenic activity and confirmation of its technical validity for the aims and tasks of ecotoxicological monitoring as well as for realistic evaluation of mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of biological liquids, food products, synthetic chemicals, including pharmaceutical preparations, etc.
In the result of realization of proposed project the following main results will be obtained:
– an experimental model of the automated apparatus for estimation of mutagenic activity of environmental objects will be developed, manufactured and tested first in the world experience of ecological monitoring;
– the unique technique for the initial check-up and standardization of various cell test-cultures that are used for evaluation of mutagenic activity of environmental samples and separate chemical compounds will be first developed, which will increase informative value of currently accepted examinations of mutagenic activity of new medical preparations, food additives, preservatives, genetically modified food products, etc.;
– unbiased data on toxicological situation in territories suffered from the ChNPP accident will be obtained, which have fundamental significance for predicting the consequences of large-scale nuclear accidents, and present indubitable interest for bodies of sanitary and epidemiological control and environmental protection;
– the necessary procedures on practical verification and metrological tests of “Method of measurements of genotoxicity of aqueous media” for its representation as a quide document (Methodical instructions) for estimation of the genotoxicity of drinking, natural and sewage waters.
Executors of the ISTC project #547-2 possess of wide experience of the work under large international projects and programs in frames of INTAS, ISTC, IPHECA under the aegis of the World Health Organization, and ECP-6 under the aegis of the Commission of European Communities, which are connected with the development and application of biotesting methods for evaluation of the environmental state, with the study of fundamental mechanisms of formation of composition and properties of environment under conditions of man-caused influences, as well as with medical aspects of injurious health effects of radiation and chemical toxicants. The industrial facilities for the realization of the ecotoxicological control are being created on the base of developments authored by project participants, including devices for investigation of various kinds of microorganisms, which have no analogues in the world.
Performance of the proposed project will provide ecological monitoring services with a highly sensitive tool for unbiased integral evaluation of the environmental quality, food chain, pharmaceutical preparations, etc. The use of this tool will permit to decrease tens and hundreds times expenses for ecological examinations of contaminated territories, reduce the groundless social tension among population living constantly in zone of influence of potentially dangerous objects, and professionally connected with its fonctioning.
In results of the project the public services of sanitary - epidemiological supervision of any level, Russian and foreign services of control and environmental protection, local systems of ecological control of potentially dangerous enterprises, including nuclear complex, can be interested first of all.
It is planned, that on the basis SPA "Typhoon" manufacturing a pilot sample will be developed and production of separate units of ECTEC complex is adjusted. A number of business concerns of Russia and USA specializing on instrument making of a medical profile, in particular, Centre of the Automized Systems of Diagnostics CASD (Russia) and corporation Fenix Nech. Int. (USA) have exhibited interest in commercialization of project, promoting of its results to the world market.
Accomplishment of this project will favor the efficient realization of aims and tasks of the ISTC, because it permit to provide highly qualified scientists and specialists, who have been for long engaged in creation, production and investigation of weapons of mass destruction, with an alternative employment, and to switch them over the tasks of development, production and commercial realization of means for environmental protection, to give a possibility of efficient integration of highly qualified Russian defense specialists into the international scientific community, to gob up strong base for adaptation of the participants of the project to market conditions.
Wide experience and high professional level of executors of the project, as well as the serious results achieved by them at the first stage, are the guarantees of the successful accomplishment of the proposed project, whereas the interest of partners from abroad assures wide application of its results.