## Field Models of Dark Matter in the Universe

#KR-677

Field Models of Dark Matter in the Universe

**Tech Area / Field**

- PHY-PFA/Particles, Fields and Accelerator Physics/Physics
- SAT-AST/Astronomy/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

**Status****8** Project completed

**Registration date****30.01.2001**

**Completion date****09.11.2005**

**Senior Project Manager**

Glazova M B

**Leading Institute**

Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

**Collaborators**

- Rome University / International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Italy, Rome\nTufts University, USA, MA, Medford\nWaseda University, Japan, Tokyo\nTheoretical Astrophysics Center (TAC), Denmark, Copenhagen\nPotsdam University / Institute for Mathematics, Germany, Potsdam\nGeorge Mason University / Institute for Computational Sciences and Informatics, USA, VA, Fairfax

**Project summary**

*Problem.*

The recent observation data, particularly the data of angular fluctuations of relict radiation temperature (experiments BOOMERANG and MAXIMA-1) [1,2], as well as the data from the observations of the I-th type supernovae with high red shifts [3,4] provide a strong indication that there are at least two basically different types of nonbaryonic dark matter that makes more than 90% of the total matter energy density in the Universe. The first of them is dust-like cold dark matter, which is gravitationally clustered in galaxies and galaxy clusters, its pressure is positive and much less than the energy density. The existence of the second form of the dark matter, which makes about 70% of the critical density of matter density in the Universe, has been clearly proved by the observations only for the last two years. This matter form is not gravitationally clustered, it is uniformly distributed in space and has a high negative pressure. Its properties are therewith close to Einstein cosmological constant. Its consistent description requires theoretical field models. As the properties of L-matter are similar to those, which presumably took place during the inflation stage in the early Universe, a natural idea is to make use of the previously developed powerful methods. Here two investigation ways are being planned:

– the approach from theory to observations consists in using the microscopic theoretic field model, calculation of consequences from the theory using conformal invariants, and their comparison with the observation data;

– from observations to theory, which suggests solution of the inverse problem of the model form and parameter determination from observations (see [5,6]).

The first type of dark matter, i.e. gravitationally clustered dust-like cold dark matter which is usually assumed to be composed of weakly interacting massive particles, may require a most complex description on (cosmologically) small scales on the order of several kiloparsecs. This is a consequence of the difficulties in the standard model of the dark cold matter, which became clear, when the highly accurate N-particle numerical simulations indicated [7] that the model predicted the singular profiles of the central energy distribution in galaxies [8], whereas the observations suggest that the dwarf and weakly emitting galaxies have a finite density of central nuclei. The theoretic field description of this matter type can also prove useful for the description of new properties of dust-like matter on small scales, which could help to resolve this problem. A unique description of either dark matter type in the present-day Universe can be obtained in this manner.

The above problems immediately entail the problem of star-like type self-gravitating field cluster structure. The feasibility study for existence of these high-energy configurations is important by itself. Simultaneously, it allows studying the attractive hypothesis of induced detonation of such fields producing plasma fireballs large in size for times commensurable with transmission of light of a characteristic configuration size. The process will resemble the relativistic detonation [9]. The wave front will include the scalar field energy and generate relativistic plasma following the wave front. This model might account for the principal traits of the gamma spike phenomenon. The objective of the study specified here is to find out the mechanism of potential field energy transformation to high-energy particle pairs.

A wide use of various scalar field types in the above models requires their special theoretical investigation. To study the system of these fields, it is suggested that the matrix space theory should be used, whose dynamic equations will be derived from the geometrodynamics equations [10]. It is planned that the equations should be used to study conditions for disappearance of the kinetic addends in the scalar field equations, i.e. conditions for absence of the matter clustering. It is suggested that the equation system should be also used to obtain the Universe background radiation spectrum and estimate Universe entropy per baryon. The latter is a consequence of the topological degeneracy of the matrix space vacuum states (for matrix dimensions 4×4, 8×8, 16×16) [11].

*References.*

1. P. de Bernardis et al., Nature, 404, 955 (2000); A.E. Lange et al., astro-ph/0005004.

2. S. Hanany et al., astro-ph/00051213; A. Balbi et al., astro-ph/0005124.

3. S. Perlmutter et al., Nature, 391, 51 (1998); S. Perlmutter et al., Astroph. J., 517, 565 (1999).

4. P.M. Garnavich et al., Astroph. J., 493, L53 (1998); A.G. Riess et al., Astron. J. 116, 1009 (1998).

5. A.A. Starobinsky. JETP Lett., 68, 757 (1998).

6. T.D. Saini, S. Raychaudhury, V. Sahni, A.A. Starobinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 1162 (2000).

7. B. Moore et al., Astroph. J., 524, L19 (1999); A.A. Klypin et al., astro-ph/9901240.

8. J.F. Navarro, C.S. Frenk, S.D.M. White, Astroph. J., 462, 563 (1996); A.A. Klypin et al., astro-ph/0006343.

9. V. Folomeev, V. Gurovich, R. Usupov, astro-ph/0008334; V. N. Folomeev, V.Ts. Gurovich and R. Usupov, hep-ph/0009134.

10. M.V. Gorbatenko, A.V. Pushkin. "In the Intermissions…" Collected works on research into the essentials of theoretical physics in Russian Federal Nuclear Center Arzamas-16. Editor Yu.A. Trutnev. World Scientific, p.p. 54-62 (1998); A.V. Pushkin. 'Monstrous moonshine' and Physics. Proceedings of The Second International Sakharov Conference on Physics, Moscow, May 20-24, 1996. World Scientific, pp. 316-319.

11. M.V.Gorbatenko, A.V.Pushkin. VANT. Ser. Teor. i Prikl. Fizika. On correspondence between tensors and bispinors. Parts I, II – No. 3 (1999); Parts III-V – No. 2-3 (2000); Part VI – No. 2 (2001).

*Project Goals and Objectives.*

– Development of microscopic theoretic field models, whose results will be compared to the observation data on inflation of the present-day Universe (non-clustered matter) and estimated clustered matter energy density. The models and theoretical methods previously developed by the Project participants for studying the early Universe will be used for the original field models.

– The inverse problem development suggests the research method “from observations to theory”, where the principal observation consequences are obtained under quite general assumptions of potential energy form.

– Theoretical studies of field models of quasi-star objects and possibility of their phase transitions in the detonation wave regime to account for the gamma spike phenomenon.

– The dynamic equations for matrix spaces specified in item 1 will be used to find the Universe background radiation spectrum and evaluate entropy per baryon in the Universe.

The Project participants (one RAS Corresponding Member, two Sc.D.’s and six Ph.D’s in physics & mathematics) are highly skilled specialists in cosmology and gravitation. These pisions of science have entered into the general area “relativistic astrophysics”. The leading team of the Project have been working in the above area from the time of its incipience. They obtained results which were included in the scientific and educational literature (L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshits “Field Theory”; J. Wheeler, K. Thorn, Ch. Mizner “Gravitation”; Ya.B. Zel’dovich, I.D. Novikov “Relativistic Astrophysics”). This team developed early models of presently widely known theory of the early Universe.

The Project scope is based on the results of the previous investigations into the theory of the early and present-day Universe obtained, in particular, during ISTC Project KR-154 by the same team of participants.

*Expected Results and Their Application.*

The Project pertains to the category “Fundamental Research”. It is suggested that theoretical models of dark matter should be developed during the Project. This will allow solution of the problem that there is no clustering of 70% of energy density in the Universe. The latter will be used as a basis of theoretical prediction for the currently conducted observations on estimations of the cosmological L-term and mass of clustered dust matter, in particular, experiments on microlensing (BOOMERANG and MAXIMA-1).

The results of the research will be reported in papers in leading international periodicals and presented at international conferences.

*Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives.*

The Project meets the ISTC requirements as it:

– promotes the fundamental science development in countries of transitional economy. This is the more so as important for the Middle Asia region, which comprises Kyrghyz Republic and where the fundamental area amount is small;

– meets the principal ISTC goals, i.e. reorientation of weapons scientists to civil activities;

– this subject scope resolves the problem of integration of the Republic scientists into the international scientific community through cooperation with collaborators, attendance of international conferences, and participation in international research projects.

*Scope of Activities.*

In accordance with the Project goals and objectives to develop the theoretic field models of matter as a candidate for dark matter in the Universe, the general problem is broken into the following tasks:

1. Using the scalar field equations commonly accepted in the theory of elementary particles and cosmology for description of the currently observed L-term of the Universe.

2. Implementation of the program as specified in item 1 without elementary unique postulation of a field equation type.

3. Studying the clustered component of dark matter and mechanisms of its generation.

4. Studying the structure of the field stars and mechanisms of transition of their energy to gamma radiation.

5. Description of the scalar fields in the geometrodynamics and multidimensional gravitation.

*Role of Foreign Collaborators.*

All the Project collaborators are worldwide leading specialists in the area of the Project research. So their consultations will be extremely important during the Project. For this purpose the following is suggested: exchange of information during the Project; assistance and financial support of the Project participants in attendance of international meetings (as it took place repeatedly during previous Project KR-154); joint symposia and workshops.

*Technical Approach and Methodology.*

The analytical and numerical methods for studying nonlinear and self-consistent problems developed previously by the Project participants (see References) will be widely used for accomplishment of the above tasks. For a part of the planned tasks, the methods developed by the participants during ISTC Project KR-154 will be used.

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