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Impulse Water-Aerosol Fire Extinguisher

#3302


Development of Pulse Water-Aerosol Fire Extinguishing Means on the Basis Environment Safe Low-Temperature Unitary Gas Generators

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
  • ENV-OTH/Other/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
21.06.2005

Leading Institute
Federal Research and Production Center «Altai», Russia, Altay reg., Biysk

Collaborators

  • New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA, Newark

Project summary

One of the most perspective ways of increase of efficiency of suppression of the certain category of fires is pulse submission atomized waters in the center of a fire. Such way allows to increase extinguishing efficiency of a non-polluting product - waters on the order.

The specified effect is reached due to fast delivery in a high-temperature zone of the center of a fire of water as fine-dispersed clouds. Due to high speed of a shot (100-120 m/s) drops of water, having high kinetic energy and heat-absorbing ability, will penetrate through a flame up to a surface of burning and cool the center of a fire up to temperatures at which burning stops. Thus besides cooling burning surface also mechanisms of extinguishing as decrease of temperature of a flame simultaneously operate at heating and evaporation in it of water drops, reduction of volumetric O2 concentration for the account of dilution with water vapor, inhibition of chain reactions of burning on fine drops, shielding of thermal radiation by a cloud of drops. Thus it is essential (the factor of useful use of water is increased by the order) and harmful consequences from its passages in environmental space are accordingly reduced. Additional ecological advantage of fine-dispersed water not peculiar to others extinguishing o devices, is adsorption of soot, carbonic oxide and other harmful gases and firm particles on fine drops of water.

For realization of technology of suppression of fires with atomized water it is necessary to create extinguishing means of a high pressure ejected water (up to 2-3 МPa) that is connected to significant complication of their designs at use in them pumped high-pressure tanks (up to 30 МPа), valves, reducers and other armature.

The specified problem may be decided more simply and effectively, and, hence, much more cheaply, by using as gas generating devices the pyrotechnic cartridges - sources of cold gas (SCG) which have high reliability (at a level modern special articles)), small sizes and weight simple enough design and does not demand use of high-pressure tanks for storage of gas, reducers and other armature.

For creation of highly effective pulse means of suppression of fires it is necessary to proceed to qualitatively new level of the theoretical and design studies based on realization complex theoretical and experimental researches of processes of replacement, emission and dispersion of water with the compressed gas, formation and movement of biphase gаз-drop-like jets up to the center of burning, processes of burning and suppression of various materials with high-impulsed jets of water.

As a result of performance of the project should be made:

  1. the demonstration sample (the mobile (backpack) water-aerosol fire extinguisher realizing perspective technology of extinguishing with fine-dispersed water, with the complete set of the design documentation and recommendations for commercial use of fire extinguishers of new generation.
  2. the measurement-diagnostic complex for experimental definition of the basic, from the point of view extinguishing efficiency, parameters gas-drop jets, first of all speeds and the sizes of drops of water (water solutions). The complex will be used as means of an independent expert appraisal of parameters of jets of existing and new designs of fire extinguishers of various domestic and foreign firms.
  3. the package of applied programs (PAP) for numerical researches of processes and design calculations of pulse water-aerosol fire extinguishers, including intensive emission of water by the compressed gases SCG, movement gas-drop jets, its dynamic and thermal interaction with the center of burning.

In the project scientists and experts of FSUE “FR&PC”ALTAI”, having unique knowledge and experience of creation of high complex technology (samples of space-rocket engineering, including creation various solid propellant engines of repeated inclusion - consecutive – igniting-quenching of charges, cooling by water of hot exhaust jets etc. Results of preliminary researches on the given theme are reported on XVI scientific - practical conference in VNIIPO of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in October, 2001, were marked in its decision as an example of the strict scientific and technical approach to the decision of the problem. Till now the extinguishing engineering was created basically by semi-empirical way. In result many aspects of extinguishing actions of water jets are remained not clear, and the data on their parameters were ambiguous, strictly are not proved and were characterized by the approached expert estimations. Besides the existing samples of the pulse water-aerosol fire extinguishers using as sources of gas superseding high-pressure tanks for storage of compressed air or nitrogen at pressure up to 30 МPа, were very expensive (5000 $ USA and more), are heavy and frequently dangerous in operation.

At work under the project, first of all, it is supposed to make use unique experience of scientists and experts FSUE “FR&PC”ALTAI” in the field of technologies of creation special articles which essential element is the methodology of complex settlement – of theoretical and experimental researches of the complex cooperating multifactorial processes. They are numerical methods of the decision of problems of gas-thermodynamics, burning and heat exchange and unique experimental base with a complex of the equipment recording, analytical and processing in an automatic mode.


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