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Production of Diamond Monocrystals

#0811


Production of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
23.12.1996

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • Science and Technology Center "Superstrengh Materials", Russia, Moscow reg., Troitsk

Collaborators

  • University of California, USA, CA, San Diego

Project summary

The goal of this Project is to determine optimum conditions for production of monocrystals and high-strength polycrystals of diamond with specified properties from different carbonaceous materials including amorphous carbon, ultra-disperse diamonds (UDD), fullerits, etc.

Expected results and scientific importance are the following:


- production of new diamond-like materials with specified mechanical, optical, thermal and electrophysical (in particular semi-conducting) properties by broad variety of conditions concerning dynamic and static compression;
- verification and broadening of model knowledge on mechanism of diamond-like material synthesis;
- development of promising technologies to produce abrasive, optical and semi-conducting materials;
- definition of commercial potential and competitiveness of these materials;
- preparation of base for manufacturing synthetical diamonds with output 10-1000 kg annually (50000-5000000 carats annually). To achieve Project goal mentioned above we should solve the following tasks in complex:
1) create pulse pressures with duration of effect t ~10-5 - 10-3 s and quasi-static pressures with duration of effect t ~ 1 - 102 s, where amplitude level corresponds to low boundary of diamond stability area in phase diagram of carbon;
2) determine mechanical (strength), optical, thermal and electrophysical properties of produced diamonds and other superstrength materials;
3) investigate influence of physical, chemical and initial characteristics of loaded carbonaceous samples (phase composition, extent of chemical purity, composition and content of catalytic and doping additions, initial temperature, geometry and porosity, etc.) on properties of produced materials;
4) develop physical models and numerical schemes of processes concerning compression of carbonaceous materials and their crystallization;
5) develop electrochemical and detonation methods to apply produced diamond powder to metal surfaces as well as static and dynamic methods to sinter them.

To carry out Project activities, it is necessary to employ methods of dynamic loading of materials with help of explosive ballistic facilities developed by VNIIEF experts. These facilities allow varying broadly parameters of loading. Investigations of diamonds and superstrength material samples are expected to be carried out by techniques of analytical chemistry, crystallography, physical optics, electric and thermal physics, and material study. The whole complex of these techniques includes X-ray diffractometry, electron diffraction, Raman and IR-spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy of diamond grains, determination of thermal capacity and thermal conductivity, measurement of static strength of grains and their dynamic resistance, determination of microhardness by Vikkers technique as well as with help of atom-force microscopy, measurement of electrical resistance in dependence on temperature and detection of optical edge of absorption for determination of semi-conducting properties. Developments of models and numerical schemes for investigated processes are expected to be carried out basing on the techniques of physics of condensed media, static physics, physical kinetics, calculate techniques of mechanics of solid and porous media as well as solid body under deformation.

Fulfillment of this Project would allow determining conditions to produce diamonds and high-strength materials with specified properties, and possible spectrum of their application. The Project would allow to shift the efforts of weapons scientists and engineers to address the scientific problems dealing with production and investigation of new materials as well as solution of applied tasks for manufacture of tools, electrical devices and, probably, jewelry.


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