Microalgae Chlorella for Drugs Destruction
Development of the Method and Technology of Destruction Medicines by Biotechnological Method with Use of Microalgae Chlorella
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
- ENV-SPC/Solid Waste Pollution and Control/Environment
- ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Center of Photosynthesizing Organisms, Feed Additives and Physiologically Active Compounds, Armenia, Yerevan
- American University of Armenia, USA, CA, Oakland\nFlorida International University, USA, FL, Miami
Project summaryAt present in establishments of Ministry of Health of Armenia has accumulated more than 70 tons of unusable to application medicines with the delayed term of the use. The big share of these medicines was formed of funds received by republic as the humanitarian help. The basic method of destruction of medicines is their burning at temperature over 1,200 degrees in the special furnaces equipped with filters and so forth with a view of prevention pollution of an atmosphere by toxic products of combustion (dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans Other components containing in the stack effluents include HCl, CO, CO2, NOx etc. However the similar specialized equipment is not available in Armenia, as well as in many other countries. Besides process of burning is expensive in itself, have results in increase in an atmosphere of carbonic gas (its promote development of a hotbed effect) and still is under production conditions accompanied by partial allocation in an atmosphere of toxic gases (during input of furnaces in a mode and during burning).
As a method of the decision of these problems present project is offered to develop technology of destruction tablets, liquid and oil forms of medicines, vaccines etc. By their dissolution in water and the further realization of clearing of a solution by a biological method with cultivation microalgae Chlorella. The biological method is considered the most effective and economically favorable method of clearing of industrial waste water and was used in the medical industry of the USSR and more than at 74 enterprises of pharmaceutical industry of USA (with application of properties of bacteria of active slime etc), providing increased requirements to reset of waste waters in water intakes. At the same time it is expedient to reduce volumes of used liquid with a view of economy of means for construction of purification (for solutions of medicines). However bacteria of active slime have low stability to high concentration of organic and mineral components and in case of their application it is necessary significant dilution solution from water, and also require the further destruction of superfluous formed active slime including and pathogenic microorganisms. Microalgae have much higher stability, in comparison with bacteria of active slime and that allows to work with more concentrated and toxic chemical compounds. Chlorella (mono celled plant in the size of 5-12 micrometers) actively utilizes mineral elements, spirits, sugar, amino acids etc and degree of clearing of waste water are much higher (from mineral and organic compound accordingly up to 96-98% and 80%), in comparison with active slime. Besides difference microalgae is also that the process is accompanied by the increase of the contents of oxygen of atmosphere, selected during photosynthesis, and this method of clearing allows to avoid in basically education of harmful waste products, characteristic for active slime which also contain pathogenic microorganisms (opposite – Chlorella has antiseptic properties owing she syntheses antibiotics). At application of microalgae were achieved high norms of clearing of phenol waste water of the Ufa Chemical Plant (Russia), Polish factory of nitric fertilizers, sugar factories, waste water of cattle-breeding and poultry-farming complexes etc. Company Hitachi receives the English patent for the method of treating waste water containing a some metals and organic dyes with Chlorella. We developed methods and the opportunity of clearing waste water of manufacture pepsin, phenol waste water of manufacture phenilalanine, industrial waste water of Charencavan Lysine Factory, Yerevan Factory of Chemical Reagents, Yerevan Factory Nairit (chloroprene rubber) etc with using Chlorella. In constructions of biological clearing of Yerevan Factory of Chemical Reagents we worked with its waste water, containing also compounds of waste water Yerevan Vitamin Factory (organic synthesis of vitamins C, Е and D). This common waste water contained products characteristic for industrial waste water of pharmaceutical manufactures. However Chlorella was not applied with a view of direct destruction of medicines.
The production of microalgae is known as the most profitable business in the biotechnological industry. It is caused by growing demand on natural generic, bio active additives for perfumery products, food and feed additive, dyes etc. This manufacture is ecologically clean, energy- and resources saving process (it will be spent basically due utilize a solar energy and maintenance of an intensification of processes of photosynthesis with technological decisions and equation compounds of a feed). The expenses of microalgaes cultivation are 3-4 times lower, consumption of water – ten times, but the cost of ready production are several times higher than traditional agriculture plants on calculation of 1 sq.metre ground. Microalgae accumulating up to 50-70% of protein (up to 50 in meat, in wheat – 15-17%), up to 30% of lipids, more than 40% of glycerol, up to 8-10% of carotene and much bigger concentration of vitamins В1, В2, В3, В6, В12, E, K, D, etc in comparison with any other object of vegetative or animal organisms. Therefore, microalgaes are especially valuable raw material for producing amino acids, antibiotics, anti viral, anti fungal and other medicinal agents. The feed additives of microalgae increase daily bead-weight, egg production, milk yield from animal, poultry and fish and decrease decease and death. We was spent Industrial Test of Chlorella powder received from clearing of waste water manufacture of lysine as 1% additive of feed on 25,200 item of trout (with average weight 12.7 g) on fish company “Chosrow”. Within the first 20 days employers of this company registered increase of a daily gain fish on 20% (in experience – 0.97 g, in the control – 0.73 g) and reduction of a fish withdrawal on 48% (in experience – 0.77%, and in the control 1.25%), and also observed decrease of distinctions between item on weight in skilled variant.
At the end 80s years in the USSR were developed the following products:
– Lipid Concentrate of Chlorella: It’s bio active additive for Shampoos and also recommended as a remedy for the treatment of colitis, cervical erosion and burn.
– Chlorella Hidrolysate: It’s a bio active additive for various creams, tooth pastes, lotions etc. It has also proven features as a remedy for the improvement of the working capacities.
At Russia since 1998 it is produces Spirullina microalgae tablets. They effectively removes slap from organism, heavy metals, radionucleotides and leukocytes, decrease being to irradiation, sugar and cholesterol in blood, card-vascular diseases and raises immunity improves a stein condition. It is also useful at treatment of liver diseases, arthritis, asthenia, and insomnia, promotes normal pregnancy and lactagenen and interferes with accumulation of excessive weight etc. The Californian company “Cyanotech. Corp., USA” since 1985 also makes Spirullina microalgae from which receives enzymes, medical products etc. (www.cyanotech.com). The largest manufacturer microalgae Chlorella is “ Sun Wellness, Inc. “ CA, USA (www.sunwellness.com). Their basic product is Chlorella`s tablets. Manufacturers of microalgaes products are also the Japanese company “Chlorella Center” (www.chlorellacenter.com) (and, including, food dye – biogreen G) and Taiwan Chlorella manufacture Co., LTD. As a whole cost microalgae tablets, granules and powder changes in limits from 270 up to 447 US$/kg. The microalgae powder, tablets, medical dyes and cosmetic means makes and Israeli Institute of Applied Researches of Ben Gyring University.
The clearing of solutions by microalgae occurs basically due to utilization of solar energy during photosynthesis and use of the chemical components of waste water as power supplies with a view of biosynthesis of own compounds necessary for duplication of a microorganism. Hence, the biomass Chlorella, formed during destruction of medicines, may have commercial value which considerably will raise profitability of process. Therefore we are also planning in the project works on protection of intellectual property right as a new method of destruction of medicines and its technology. At this purpose researches are included: patent search to identify the degree and trends in technology development of engineering, patent ability assessment of an invention and preparation of documentation to file for patent according to the PCT procedure, and also expenditures to pay for transferring an international application into national (ten countries) stages. There are also planned reception of state certificates of quality of product from Armenian Drug and Medical Technology Agency of Ministry of Health RA for substitute of application biomass of Chlorella, received at destruction of medicine, and also to research of influence of a received biomass on organisms by realization Industrial Tests on studying influence of this biomass on ability to live of poultry (change of alive weight., the charge of a forage on 1 kg of an additional weight, safety of a livestock, exchange reactions, a chemical compound and toxicity of meat) as feed additive which will be spent on the basis of the Center of Animal and Veterinary of Ministry of Agriculture RA. For rendering the consulting help and reduction scientific and organizational risk to performance of the project its involved the as consultant conducting pharmacist of republic vice-president Scientific Academia of RA, Dr.Sci.Med., professor E.S.Gabrielyan.
At the same time our Center have qualifications, capabilities, and experience of the key scientific and experts personnel for realization of development, but also culture Chlorella approved on various waste water, the necessary laboratory and specialized equipment, and territory for construction of skilled pilot pool for realization of researches. For development of technology it is planned applications basically construction pilot concrete pools in which it will be skilled experimental destruction of the medicines (preliminary dissolved of water, an acid or alkali) and purchase of a modern German separator which has earlier positively recommended itself in the various countries for industrial branches of a biomass Chlorella. Pools will be provided with systems of aeration and hashing of suspension for realization of researches on an intensification of biotechnological processes.
Thus, it will be available and necessary conditions for the decision of the following basic problems of the project:
– To study the degree of tablets, liquid and oil forms of medicinal products with Chlorella (soluble in water, an acids or alkalis) in a complex and in separate combinations.
– To determine the level of clearing of solutions of medicines in Industrial pilot pools after application Chlorella.
– To solve questions of hardware application in processes and to define optimum technological modes for realization of destruction of medicines.
– To determine structure of the products formed during clearing (a biomass Chlorella, the firm rests of insoluble compound) and to prepare offers on their application.
– To lead calculations of economic efficiency of application method for destruction of medicines with use Chlorella and to develop the Industrial Applications of technological processes.
New method will solve the following questions:
– prevention of pollution of the atmosphere by toxic gases and decrease contents of carbonic gas;
– increase of a degree of the control process of destruction medicines;
– above permitted standard accumulation not suitable for the use medicines in the countries which are not constructions on their burning;
– creation of system of regional biotechnological installations on destruction of medicines with Chlorella cultivation and replacement of technologies of burning of the basic part of medicines – technologies of biological clearing;
– decrease of the cost price of destruction medicines and accordingly to reduction of the common cost price of manufactures, the prices of sales of medicines and increase their availability to consumers;
– during destruction of medicines occurrence of a new product – a biomass microalgae which has high commercial cost and various applications in pharmaceutical, biological, perfumery and agricultural branches.
Thus, development of technology will promote the decision of questions of nature protection, depreciation of medicines and reception of a valuable biomass of Chlorella. Demonstration of opportunities of destruction of medicines on pilot installation will allow to involve the commercial enterprises (on a mutually advantageous basis) to realization of development in the various countries, to create necessary base for introduction method in Armenia, and also may form base for the further development of nature protection technologies on clearing waste water of various manufactures with use microalgae. Simultaneously it will allow to expand scientific base for development research by biotechnological method clearing of waste water and development technology of microalgaes manufactures in Armenia. This project will allow also to prevent emigration from Armenia of experts, before defensive branches involved in development and capable to participate in researches and manufacture of the weapon of mass defeat.
Urgency of project based on the approaches of the world community to the decision of questions sustainability development (documents of conference of Rio de Janeiro (1992)) and the world summit in Johannesburg (2002)) and, in particular, are closely connected with the necessity decisions of task Kyoto protocol (1997) on global warming.