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Creating of Structural Composites


Development of scientific Foundations or Creating Composites by Radiation Methods

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-COM/Composites/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk

Supporting institutes

  • Ural Branch of RAS / Institute of Metal Physics, Russia, Sverdlovsk reg., Ekaterinburg

Project summary

The goal of the Project is to create radiation technologies having no foreign analogues for obtaining new structural composites with practically important physicomechanical properties.

The problem consists in obtaining new structural composites with specified properties for practical applications by means of radiation methods. The importance of the problem consists in the fact that obtaining of such structural composites is practically impossible by the traditional methods. As a result of the Project goal attainment, the possibility will appear for realizing the technological principles for creating pseudobimetals, surface martensite layers being resistant to wear, semisolid magnetic materials with high magnetic and hysteresis characteristics, anisotropic electrotechnical steel with lowered magnetic losses.

The interest to the shown problem is determined by comparative novelty, noncompleteness and difficulty of the investigations concerned with elucidation of physical regularities in the radiation modification of materials.

The radiation action on materials leads to the local changes in compositions, structural and phase transformations (aging, ordering, dclamination, amorphization, formation of segregations and special defect structures) in the volume of material that results in the occurrence of structural composites which change cardinally the physicomechanical properties of materials and that can be used for creating new materials with unique properties. When irradiating by electrons, along with the formation of radiation defects, the heating of material takes place not from the surface as with traditional methods of processing but over the whole depth of the irradiated layer.

The basic directions of work, purposes and tasks are given below.

a) Investigations into the processes of the stimulated diffusion delimitation of iron-nickel Invars under electron irradiation and the creation of structural "pseudobimetallic" composites.

As a result of investigation into the shown physical processes the basis of the technology for obtaining bimetal material out of Invar tape will be developed by means of the essential increase in the coefficient of linear expansion under radiation and thermal delamination of the surface layer of the alloy being irradiated by electrons.

b) Investigation into the radiation action of high-energy electrons on the structural and phase transformations of metal material (aging, ordering, martensite transformations) with a view to improves their physicomechaiucal properties.

Ultimately, it is proposed to develop the technology of deep surface hardening of alloys due to the martensite crystals formation in the surface layers of the samples with a view to obtain austeuite and martensite composites being resistant to wear. The formation of ferromagnetic crystals of martensite in the "point" sections of the paramagnetic matrix.

By means of implantation-stimulating technologies the high-adgesive oxycarbonitride composite coatings being resistant to wear and applied on the austenite and martensite materials will be created with using high-dense low-energy atom-ion flows.

c) Investigation into the possibility for decreasing magnetic losses in electrical sheet steels and amorphous alloys at the expense of local radiation actions with a view to develop new methods for improving service properties of industrial and dectrotechnical materials. Within this direction it is proposed:

- to investigate the influence of the radiation actions on the structure and magnetic properties of anisotropic electrical sheet steel and magnetically soft amorphous materials;
- to optimize the modes of action with a view to obtain maximum effect of magnetic properties improvement;
- to develop recommendations for creating the specialized installation for the modification of materials.

d) Complex investigation into structural changes (short-range atomic ordering) in dectrophysical and magnetic characteristics of semisolid magnetic materials (Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Co-Nb) and amorphous alloys subjected to mechanical and thermal processing (MTP) as well as to the radiation-thermal treatment (RTT) (irradiation by intensive beams of high energy electrons under low and increased temperatures). Study into the recovery processes of electrophysical and magnetic parameters (Hc, Hs), determination of radiation and thermal stability of properties as well as the optimum MTP and RTT modes ensuring the improvement of service characteristics of the given class materials.

RTT changing the power of the short-range atomic order and the concentration delarmnation makes possible to regulate the domain structure and to change the hysteresis loop form. It is proposed to increase essentially the magnetohysteresis characteristics (to increase the degree of magnetization of semisolid magnetic materials in weak fields) that are of great importance, in particular for creating high-speed hysteresis engines.

As a result of the given Project fulfillment the following will be achieved:

1. Essential progress in the physics of radiation - stimulated structural and phase transformation in metal alloys.
2. Scientific foundations for the creation of the structural composites with unique properties by the radiation methods will be developed because the composites with these properties can not be obtained by other methods.
3. Conditions will be determined for the optimum usage of different sources of radiation in some radiation technologies with a view to creates structural composites.
4. Technical principles will be developed for obtaining structural composites by radiation methods (pseudobimetals. austenite - martensite surface layers, being resistant to wear on steels, anisotropic electrical sheet steels with small magnetic losses, semisolid magnetic materials with high magnetic and hysteresis characteristics). The prototypes of the enumerated composites will be obtained.

The results of work under the Project can be not only of scientific interest but also of the commercial one. Thus, for example, by the introduction of radiation technology with respect to obtaining electrical sheet steel in future it is possible to economize up to 0.3-milliard kWhr of electric power per year.

The obtained scientific and technical results of work under the Project will be presented at conferences and published in open press and technical literature. In the course of this work of non-military nature the VNIITF, IMP and KPTI specialists will get into contact both among themselves and with the colleagues from the civil fields of science and engineering of the world community countries. The realization of the given Project will familiarize them with the problems being of potential and commercial interest for the nearest future. Moreover, the unique character of technology for obtaining new structural composites by radiation methods makes possible to speak with confidence that on completion of the Project the work in this field will be continued in VNIITF, IMP and KPTI.

When realizing the Project we are ready to collaborate with scientific organizations and firms of Western countries and Japan.