Genetic Health Prognosis
Integrated Genetic Health Prediction for People Exposed to Hazardous Environments: A Method Based on Genotype and Radiosensitivity Analysis
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Pobedimskaya D D
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russia, Moscow reg., Puschino\nInstitute of General Genetics, Russia, Moscow
- University of California / Division of Environmental Health Sciences, USA, CA, Washington
Project summaryWith the technological advance, environmental hazards to the human health are steadily growing in number. Environmental catastrophes have become move frequent, their probability increasing. Particular concern are those of such events which may produce genetically adverse impact on the health of posterity. Moreover, there is continuous exposure to genetically harmful environments that exists for the personnel at nuclear power plants and facilities whose safe operation is of great environmental importance.
Currently, there are no methods to provide a scientifically sound prediction of the consequences that may ensue from the people living and working in unfavorable environments, particularly, posing radiological hazards. For the most part, this is because the response of each inpidual human body to radiation is absolutely specific and depends on its genotype and radiation sensitivity, the knowledge of the latter being insufficient so far.
It is the goal of the proposed project to develop a methodology for integrated genetic health prediction for people exposed to hazardous environments based on the genotype and inpidual radiosensitivity analysis.
It mould be the first time a scientifically sound prediction is made for human Health using a combination of genetic approaches and unique technologies as follows:
· irradiation of biological objects by a small X-ray device built upon a VNIIEF-developed pulsed accelerator;
· evaluation of radiation damage to the human body through the micronuclei count of binucleate cells following in vitro blood irradiation;
· identification of genotype (gene pattern) in inpidual using electrophoretic separation of blood proteins.
Definitely, advantages of the proposal approach are:
· it allows prompt screening of a large group of (up to 200) people at a time;
· the equipment it uses is of small size, to operate and inexpensive;
· its facilities and equipment are environmentally benign.
· The irradiation method for biological objects, particularly, blood and its constituents, and the small pulsed accelerator device are both protected by patents for invention.
· Design patent No.40868, as per application No.64303/2278 filed 130 ct 1992, was granted to the authors S.A.Putevskoi, Yu. A. Taraev, S.L.Elyash, A.I. Aleksandrin and N.I. Kalinovskaya, for “X-ray Irradiator”. Published in the bulletin (in Russian). “Полезные модели. Промышленные образцы”, 1, 1995. (Utility models. Production prototypes, 1, 1995).
The following activities are anticipated as part of the project performance:
· select the cohorts of inpiduals having the lowest and highest viability;
· establish the cohorts of people different in inpidual radiosensitivity;
· develop a comprehensive genetic health prediction for each inpidual in question given his or her living or working in radiologically unfriendly environment;
· develop a genetic health prediction procedure for people affected by an environmental disaster;
· design and develop a small-size X-ray blood irradiator technology;
· develop guidelines on the development of regional centers for comprehensive genetic prediction with a mobile facility to operate in environmentally unfriendly locations.
Addressing each of these tasks would be of high scientific and applied value, that the accomplishments of this effort can be subsequently used to predict the impact of unfavorable environments on the health of generations to follow. Moreover, the project results may be used for the benefit of safe operations in nuclear power industry, specifically as applied to developing a health projection system for personnel at nuclear power plants and facilities.
The project will involve highly skilled specialists in biophysics, biochemical genetics, cytogenetics, radiobiology, experimental physics, mathematics and computer technology, including scientists and engineers formerly involved in nuclear weapons R&D.
Possible directions of international collaboration
· Joint research and joint activities directed to the organization of regional centers for complex genetic prediction. Such centers will include a mobile laboratory for works in different ecologically hazardous regions of the world.
· It is reasonable to organize the first center as mentioned on the base of RFNC-VNIIEF, which possesses unique facilities and highly qualified personnel.
· It would be possible to hazardous environments on the health of the following generations.
· The obtained results could be used in the interests of atomic energetics safe functioning in the sphere of development of health prediction system for atomic power stations and facilities personnel.
· The proposed method of complex genetic prediction is quite applicable to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons.