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Atomic and radiation processes

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Atomic and radiation processes in plasmas, gases and solids

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-PLS/Plasma Physics/Physics

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
23.07.1993

Completion date
07.04.1999

Senior Project Manager
Karabashev S G

Leading Institute
TRINITI, Russia, Moscow reg., Troitsk

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov\nFIAN Lebedev, Russia, Moscow\nKurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow\nRussian Academy of Sciences / Physical Technical Institute, Russia, St Petersburg\nVNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk

Collaborators

  • Pittsburgh University, USA, PA, Pittsburgh\nForschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Germany, Karlsruhe\nURA 0073/Universite Paris-Sud, France, Orsay\nLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nBritish Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL), UK, Chesire, Risley Warrington

Project summary

The project focuses primarily on theoretical research aimed at the solution of a number of atomic physics and radiation problems that have both fundamental importance as well as significant applications in the problem of controlled thermonuclear synthesis. X-ray lasers. X-ray laboratory sources, environmental protection, biomedicine, and astrophysics.

The basic goal of this research is to identify appropriate physical models for a variety of problems involving atomic and radiation processes in plasmas, gases and solids. Existing computer codes will be adapted, or new codes will be developed, to evaluate these models to yield predictions of observable quantities. Situations will be identified where experimental observations would be possible to measure those quantities that the models show are sensitive to differences in assumptions, theories, or other factors.

The following research subjects are included for investigation under this proposal.

1) Hot/dense plasmas.

Quantitative predictions of the spectra emitted by dense plasmas with detailed information on line shapes.

Description of ionization balance and atomic level populations in plasmas.

Investigation of the atomic level populations in highly-excited (Rydberg) atoms and ions.

Development of physical models for multiply charged ions kinetics (radiative-collisional model with non-equilibrium population kinetics, average ion model, the model on the basis of kinetic equation for atomic density matrix)

Development of numerical methods and codes for solution of equations of radiation gas dynamics in two-temperature plasma together with population kinetic equations.

Development of numerical methods and codes for solution of equations for one-dimensional magnetic radiation gas dynamics with account for kinetics of multiply charged ions level populations in the framework of local radiative-collisional model.

Development of line broadening theory and a theory of resonance emission transfer with account for effects of partial redistribution over frequencies at the photon scattering.

Development of approximate methods for calculations of linear radiation transfer in framework of antidiffusion approximation, methods and codes for solution of the problem of radiation gas dynamics of two-dimensional systems.

Development of methods for description of soft X-ray propagation in statistically inhomogeneous multicharged plasma with account for refraction and reflection of emission in two and three-dimensional systems.

2) Ion-atom and electron-atom collisions.

Develop descriptions of strongly-inelastic electron-atom radiative-collisional processes and related kinetics. Results are to be used as building blocks in the numerical modeling of high-complexity plasmas.

Develop appropriate models of strongly inelastic processes including bremsstrahlung, recombination, and excitation of an atom by electron impact and dielectric recombination.

Study of the characteristics and the elementary processes involving Rydberg states.

3) Atomic processes in external fields.

Model the detailed behavior of an atom in a strong resonance laser field, the nonlinear interactions of atoms and ions with plasma microfield fluctuations and phenomena of the "quantum chaos" type.

An analytical study of the dynamical properties of atoms in external fields, including multielectron processes. Description of Rydberg atoms behavior in microwave resonator. Cyclotron radiation transfer in strong magnetic fields. Strong-field photoionization.

4) Low-Z radiative opacity of gases and solids.

Calculation of low-Z (ZOO) opacity in regimes relevant to astrophysics and planetary astronomy, particularly at low temperatures (kT < 1 eV) where atoms, ions, molecules, molecular ions, and condensates can coexist. Once a phase transition occurs, radiative properties of the condensates can be particularly important. This subject is relevant to proto-star formation, formation of the solar system, planetary atmospheres, and global climate change.

5) Nonlinear optics.

High-order harmonic generation with super-intense laser fields in atomic gases and plasmas.

Dynamics of gas breakdown with short laser pulses.

Nonlinear optical phenomena with broadband intense fields.

6) X-ray optics.

Model the behavior of x-ray optical elements (crystals, mirrors, filters, synthetic multilayers) for all photon energies, with a special emphasis for energies near to atomic thresholds (the "anomalous scattering" region).

Model the behavior of x-ray optical elements under severe heat loads and in intense fields. Model the time-dependent behavior of x-ray optical elements after damage thresholds have been exceeded.


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