Bioremediation of Proving Grounds
Elaboration of Methods of Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils on Former Military Locations and Proving Grounds in Georgia
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Alexandrov K A
Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Georgia, Tbilisi
Contamination of the environment is a key problem for the nature and mankind. The problem of preservation and remediation of the biosphere emerges a number of urgent tasks. Military activities are determinant among anthropogenic factors of biodeterioration. Locations and proving grounds deserve particular interest, as chemical toxicants in contaminated territories threaten to get into the elements biogenic migration.
The goal of the presented project is to work out the methods of bioremediation to purify contaminated by military activities territories from organic toxicants and heavy metals.
Recent study of molecular mechanisms of organic xenobiotic detoxification implies the strategy of improving the methods of bioremediation (Salt, D.E., Smith, R.D. and Raskin J. Phytoremediation. Annu.Rev.Plant Physiol.Plant Mol.Biol. 1998, 49, 643-668).
Unlike the chemical methods of purification, bioremediation secures maximum sanitation of the natural environment maintaining the ecological balance.
For more than three decades at the Durmishidze Institute of Plant Biochemistry have been studied the molecular mechanisms of detoxification of organic compounds by plant like: aliphatic, aromatic, polycyclic aromatic carcinogenic hydrocarbons, pesticides of different classes and nitrogen-containing organic compounds.
The problems of contamination and bioremediation are disscussed in 150 works of the Institute (the list of selected publications is enclosed), among which the following must be pointed out:
— G. Khatisashvili, M. Gordeziani, G. Kvesitadze, F. Korte. Plant monooxygenases: participation in xenobiotic oxidation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1997, 36, 118-122.
— Ugrekhelidze D., Kvesitadze G. Assimilation and metabolism of methan by higher plants. Fresenius Envir. Bull. 1997, 6, 740-748.
— Buadze O., Sadunishvili T., Kvesitadze G. The effect of 1,2-benzantracene and 3,4-benzpyrene on the ultrastructure of mize cells. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 1998, 41/2, 119-125.
The Institute possesses a collection of microscopic fungi and actimonycetes, isolated from different soil-climatic regions of Georgia which contains more than 7000 strains of microscopic fungi and over 500 strains of actinomycetes.
Implementation of the applied researches enables to state the type and rate of chemical contamination of the former territories of locations and proving grounds in Georgia.
Proceeding from the analysis of obtained data will be stated : the sequence of acidic degradation reactions of organic toxicants assimilated by the root system of selected plants from the contaminated soil; the rate of absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. On the basis of conducted experiments the system of soil phytoremediation will be elaborated.