Sensors and Instruments for Infectious Diseases Diagnostics
The Study and Selection of Bioreceptors and Transducers and Development of Sensors and Instruments on Their Basis for Immunoassay by the Example of Diagnosis of the Forest-Spring Encephalitis
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
- INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
- INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Joint Stock Company PRACTIC-NC, Russia, Moscow reg., Zelenograd\nUral State Economic University, Russia, Sverdlovsk reg., Ekaterinburg
- Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) / Center for Environmental Restoration Systems, USA, IL, Argonne\nUniversity of Lund, Sweden, Lund\nStreamline Automation LLC, USA, AL, Huntsville\nUniversity of Oklahoma / Institute for Science and Public Policy, USA, OK, Norman\nUniversita Degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italy, Rome
Project summaryHazardous infections such as pertussis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, B and C, measles, and many others that have spread recently over large territories present a significant problem. The situation with hazardous infections being a most topical one will be exemplified by forest-spring encephalitis.
Early diagnostics of hazardous diseases, determination of factors favoring development of diseases, including infectious ones, in the human organism represents very topical problems of today.
The existing methods for diagnostics of the forest-spring encephalitis virus, first, take a long time, and, second, either require expensive equipment or have insufficient sensitivity (titration method, which is based on visual qualitative assessment of a biochemical reaction). An early rapid diagnostics of the disease, objective monitoring of its development, and judging the efficiency of the treatment represent a challenge that should be attacked by combined efforts of physicians and specialists in adjacent fields of knowledge, such as biochemists, analytical chemists, programmers, electronic engineers.
To solve this problem, it is necessary to create cheap, simple and sensitive methods for rapid diagnostics of virus infections and develop appropriate hardware realizing these methods. Involvement of electrochemical analysis methods, which are based on biosensors fabricated using microelectronic technologies, seem to show great promise for diagnostics of hazardous infectious diseases. This statement is supported by high sensitivity, good reproducibility and selectivity of electrochemical methods, simplicity of equipment, good outlooks for development of portable instruments serviceable in the field and laboratory conditions, a low cost of the analysis compared to other methods, and just an "outbreak" of publications dedicated to development of electrochemical biosensors for different applications.
The main objective of the Project is to apply the experience and knowledge of Russian scientists, specialized in the development, production and testing of weapons of mass destruction, to peaceful purposes. A considerable economic support will be rendered to specialists, who are currently concerned with nuclear weapons. The fulfilment of the Project will have additional effects including an intensive interaction between specialists in the nuclear industry and other Russian scientists and attraction of weapon specialists to market relations, which were inaccessible to them earlier. The commercial realization of the Project may provide tolerable living conditions for the Project contractors after its completion.
In scientific terms, the Project is concerned with the solution of one of the most topical problems of today, namely, development of means for early diagnostics of infectious diseases taking forest-spring encephalitis as an example, and the use of those means at hospitals and polyclinics. The obtained results will serve as the basis for creation of a family of immunosensors for diagnostics of various infectious diseases and general pathologies.
The Project applies to the following fields:
1. Instrument making for medicine.
2. Technology for fabrication of special-purpose sensors.
3. Project management and commercialization.
The relevant experience has been gained by the supposed Project contractors:
- Russian Federal Nuclear Centre – All-Russia S&R Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region;
- Ural State Economic University (USUE), Ekaterinburg;
- "Praktik-NC" Joint Stock Co., Zelenograd, Moscow.
The goal of the Project is to study and select bioreceptors and transducers, and use these devices as the basis for development of immunosensors and instruments for diagnostics of infectious diseases, in particular, the forest-spring encephalitis.
Specific goals of the Project:
- examine some possible bioreceptors and transducers, and select an optimal "bioreceptor-transducer" combination;
- determine methods for reducing the number of steps involved in the immunoassay in order to develop a "label-free" or "non-enzyme" immunoassay technique;
- develop the design and the production technology of solid-phase immune biosensors on the basis of selected bioreceptors and transducers for diagnostics of infectious diseases on the example of the forest-spring encephalitis;
- analyse main metrological and technical characteristics of developed immune biosensors;
- elaborate application methods, algorithms and programs for processing of the data received from the sensors;
- develop and test portable instruments for operation with the solid-phase immune biosensors intended to diagnose infectious diseases.
The scientific-and-technical approach and the methods of investigations are based on the data reported in scientific publications and at international conferences by the Project contractors [1-14].
The anticipated results of the Project are as follows:
- A fundamental breakthrough in the given scientific-and-technical field;
- Realization of scientific-and-technical achievements as commercial products, namely, medical equipment.
The following items will be developed under the Project:
- solid-phase immunosensors for diagnostics of infectious diseases taking the forest-spring encephalitis as an example;
- analysis technique;
- program ensuring operation of the sensors, reading and processing of data;
- portable microprocessor instrument based on the new sensors for diagnostics of various infections. The instrument will allow making measurements both at stationary laboratories of large hospitals and in the field conditions.
The Project has the following significance:
1. The Project will provide a considerable economic support to Russian scientists for the period of the Project duration and direct their efforts to solution of very important problems of the health protection, medicine, and peaceful production.
2. Fulfilment of the Project works will create working places for nuclear scientists for the period of their re-orientation to peaceful activities.
3. Physicians will have a method and an instrument for early diagnostics of infectious diseases, specifically the forest-spring encephalitis. It will be possible to use the instrument extensively in the clinical practice, leading to improvement of the health protection of people.
The Project satisfies all objectives of the ISTC since it helps a group of Russian scientists, who have knowledge and skills in the field of weapons of mass destruction, re-orient themselves to peaceful activities and assists in solving an important national and international scientific-and-technical problem, namely, development of means for early diagnostics of infectious diseases.