Fungicide for the Protection of Cereal
The Development of Biological Fungicide for the Protection of Cereal Against Phytopathogenic Fungi
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
3 Approved without Funding
State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Russia, Moscow reg., Obolensk
- State Scientific Center of Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms (GosNIIGenetica), Russia, Moscow
Project summaryEvery year detriment to the agriculture, forestry and public health cause by different pests has been evaluated by the billions of dollars. Various strategies have been used to control pests. One strategy is using of chemical pesticides with a broad range of action. However, there are a number of disadvantages for using such chemical pesticides. Specifically, because of the broad spectrum of activity, these pesticides may destroy non-target organisms such as beneficial insects and parasites of destructive pests. Besides, chemical pesticides are frequently toxic to animals and humans. Furthermore, target organisms frequently develop the resistance when repeatedly exposed to such pesticides. Chemical pesticides act quickly, but they often exacerbate the original pest problem, while adding new threats to the human health and environment.
Another strategy is based on the application of biopesticides that is on the use of naturally occurring pathogenic microorganisms to control insects, weeds, fungal and bacterial infestations of crops. For example, biopesticides are bacteria which produce substances toxic to the infesting pest. Bacterial biological pesticides can provide safer, cost-effective pest management options and are a way out of the pest problems. Biopesticides as a whole are generally less harmful to non-target organisms and to the environment than chemical pesticides.
Some of spore-forming bacteria produce biologically active compounds inhibiting the development of microscopic fungi – agents of plant diseases. The spore-forming bacteria as compared with other produces biological active compounds have a number of advantages at cultivation, secretion of target products and their application. The bacterial strains produce fungicidal compounds of various natures. It is only some bacterial fungicidal factors that had been isolated, purified and characterized. In the most cases the mode of fungicidal action of phytopathogenic fungi has not been known yet. The absence of data about physicochemical properties and the mode of inhibiting action of fungicidal factors make difficult the creation of high effective biological preparations for the protection plants against phytopathogenic fungi.
It is known, that some species of spore-forming bacteria possess antagonistic action against phytopathogenic fungi, which mainly attack the grain plants (Fusarium avenaceum Sacc., Fusarium graminearum Shwabe, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium culmorum Sacc., Rhizoctonia cerealis, Pythium, Sclerotinia, Alternaria, Ascochita).
However, some species of fungi (e.g. Fusarium graminearum Shwabe) display high resistance to the antagonistic microorganisms. That is why it is necessary to conduct the screening of the bacteria, which suppress the growth of such fungi species.
The bacterial strain, which will have the maximum spectrum of activity, will be used as a base for the development of new biofungicide.
– Isolation and research of the bacterial strain with the wide spectrum of fungicide activity against phytopathogenic fungi.
– Investigation of the mode of action of fungicide factor(s) and characterization of fungicide factor(s) of antagonistic strain.
– Development of biological fungicide for the protection of cereal against phytopathogenic fungi.
To solve these tasks it is necessary to carry out the following investigations:
1. Isolation and research of the bacterial strain with the wide spectrum of fungicide activity against phytopathogenic fungi.
– Screening the bacterial strains collection in order to select a strain with a high activity against phytopathogenic fungi infecting cereals.
– Analysis of morphological and biological properties of the selected strain and its identification.
– Optimization of the fermentation conditions of the bacteria in order to obtain the maximum production of fungicide factor(s).
2. Investigation of the mode of action and characterization of fungicide factor(s) of antagonistic strain.
– Isolation, purification and concentration of fungicide factor(s).
– Research of physicochemical properties of fungicide factor(s).
– Investigation of the mode of antagonistic action of the strain and purified fungicide factor(s).
3. Development of biological fungicide for the protection of cereals against phytopathogenic fungi.
– Laboratory testing of the fungicide activity of the strain (treatment of seed and vegetative plants at the different stages of the growth).
– Monitoring of the gathered corn after the treatment of the growing vegetative plants with the antagonistic strain.
– Development of a biofungicide formula.
– Laboratory testing of the biofungicide samples.
– Small-scale field trials of plants growing up after biofungicide treatment of seed before sowing.
– Small-scale field trials of plants treated with biofungicide at the different stages of the vegetative growth.
– Monitoring of the gathered corn after the treatment of the vegetative growing plants with fungicide.
Development of the effective, environment friendly biological fungicide for the protection of the cereal against phytopathogenic fungi.
The research which has been suggested belongs to the area of the applied sciences. The specialists which will take part in the project have a great experience in microbiology, genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry and mycology.
This convention project will provide redirection of the former ''weapon'' professional's abilities and practical experience to the research in peaceful purposes in the field of the development of novel biological plant protection means.
In view of ecological and economical experience of developing new-generation biopreparations, the results obtained in the course of this ISTC project can be positively assessed and will find application in Russia and in different countries of the world. A new fungicide that will be created controls pests by non-toxic mechanisms. The results from these studies will increase efficiency of agricultural and industrial production, improve food quality, and thus decrease the harm of presently widely used chemical pesticides.