Early Diagnoses of Cancer Diseases
Development and Testing of the Express Method and Analytic Equipment for Early Diagnosis of Cancer Diseases Taking into Account the Radiation Factor
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials named after A. Bochvar, Russia, Moscow
- Joint Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research - Sosny, Belarus, Minsk, Sosny\nResearch Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Belarus, Minsk
- Centre Alexis Vautrin, France, Vandoeuvre\nAlbert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg / Klinik fuer Tumorbiologie, Germany, Freiburg\nLos Alamos National Laboratory / Bioscience Division, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nBaylor College of Medicine, USA, TX, Houston\nMedizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany, Hannover
Project summaryOne of the key problems for further development of the nuclear power energy and industry is the objective estimation of possible medical consequences for population and personal.
Very actual for all countries, which are developed nuclear energetic, still leave the problem of estimation of the radiation stimulated carcinogenic risks from low level doses (appr. 0.1 Sv) for personal and population.
At the same time the absence of highly effective methods (technical, laboratorial) for early diagnosis of malignant tumors remains the greatest problem for the world oncology. Among the 500 known methods of determining tumor markers there are almost no methods that could enable us to determine tumor at the early stage.
During the last 10 years there were collected numerous facts proving the cancerogene effect of nitrosoamines, although the mechanics of its direct influence on tissues is not quite clear. The most important proved fact for oncology is that nitrozamines can be synthesised from their precursors directly in human bodies. Besides, it is determined that ionizing radiation is one of the factors of the endogenic synthesis of nitrosoamines.
The insight into the problem may provide two aspects for its evaluation:
- development of techniques for diagnostics of cancer owing to the effect of ionizing radiation on the patient`s body (the so-called radiation-induced cancers);
- development of techniques and facilities for cancer diagnostics, taking into account the factor of radiation exposure.
One of the real searching ways for the marker available for revealing of tumors can be determination of the nitrosocompounds level in liquids of humans, in particular, of the N-nitrosodymethylamine (NDMA).
By that moment it is known more than 200 compounds which can be attributed to tumour markers. But a real marker which can satisfacted to all above mentioned conditions has not been still found, and so, up-to-date the markers used in diagnostics are satisfied to some criteria only.
Therefore, search for tumour markers, which are produced by tumour cells or the organism as a response on tumour development, or, as in the case of NDMA, are endogenically synthesized in the organism are the very actual problem, which can be solved only in the presence of sensitive and express method and accessible equipment for its determination.
There is a lot of different technologies for marker determination. Each of them has own advantages and deficiencies. Among a large amount of the published descriptions of the technical methods for NC determination the most popular is a chemiluminiscenting detector developed in the USA.
But complexity of apparatus, limited accessibility of high cost detector (TEA-502, TEA-610), long time of analyses (time of volatile NA analysis, including difficulties of probe preparation not less than min 24 hours), exclude this method to be widely used for mass analyses. High-informative chromato mass spectrometry and high efficient liquid chromatography have the same problems.
For this reason no one has found a practical application in monitoring of water objects, other objects of the environment and certification of foods, especially for biological monitoring (studies on liquids and tissues of organisms), because they are needed in high volume probes (~ 100 ml).
On the basis of the fundamental research carried out at the Institute “SOSNY” we have obtained more than 180 relationships of the transformation processes from precusors to NC in the model water medium and of the animals organisms taking into account radiation component which are revealed the main parameters of the synthesis and modification factors of it. On these results is based a new approach to the analyses of the NC and technical feasibility of the method. The new designed apparatus “KANAS-1” has been done, and, as a result of testing it gives the possibility to determine the level of the NC more express, safe for the researcher and has a good perspective to be applied for the detecting of the NC and their precusors level in the human organisms.
On the basis of the Research Institute of Inorganic Materials the following is planned:
- to develop, construct and test demonstration complex of analytical equipment;
- to modernize methods of nitrites and NA microanalyses (to increase sensitivity, accuracy and to decrease time of analyses);
- to improve the method of probe preparedness due to increasing extraction rate from probes and concentration of the analyzed nitrogen containing compounds;
- to look for new color reactions for nitrites and NC analyses by spectrophotometric and other methods;
- to develop electrochemical way for nitrites and NC analyses, taking into account their simultaneous presence in the probe;
- to study of transformation mechanisms and influence of different factors on rate of transformations alkylamines nitrites nitrosocompounds in solutions, including the effect of ionizing radiation.
Participation of the Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research/National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Institute “SOSNY”) will be as follows:
- development of the express technique for the early cancer diseases diagnostics;
- to study radioactivity of biomaterial and its effect on NDMA content;
- to test the designed method and technological schemes;
- determination of the probe radioactivity and NDMA content;
- provision with methodology for mathematical simulation of the results;
- designing of the complex technical system, allowed to assess human carcinogenic condition (here the work will be done in close collaboration with the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and the Institute of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine named after N.N. Alexandrov).
Participation of the Institute of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine named after N.N. Alexandrov will be as follows:
- organization of the laboratory studies;
- management and study of patients;
- optimization of the early cancer diagnostic technique;
- to study ionizing radiation factor effect.
In the work the leading specialists in different branches of science, including 6 Professors, 15 Doctors of Science will be engaged with. The main amount of specialists has successfully worked before on (ISTC) projects and well know rules and demands of ISTC.
This Proposal will promote the realization of the ISTC aim, because:
- it gives possibilities to scientists and specialists who are connected with weapon research to work on peaceful ecological program;
- it encourages integration of Russian and Belarus scientists in international science community;
- it supports fundamental and applied studies and technologies development in sphere of the environment protection, nuclear safety and cancer diseases diagnostics.
The results of the project can be used in commercial way, by organizing departments in specialized medical centers for early cancer diagnostics.
Role of International Collaborator.
According to volume of activity within the framework of the offered Project the volume of cooperation with foreign collaborators can include:
- information interchange during realization of the Project;
- representation of responses and comments to technical reports (quarter, annual etc.), represented in ISTC on a course of performance of the Project, and also to articles, reports and other publications;
- rendering assistance and granting of material support to participants of the Project in visiting the International conferences and seminars;
- realization of joint symposiums and seminars.