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Photodynamic Therapy in Oncology

#G-856


Early Diagnostics of Pre-Cancer Changers and Intravascular Photodynamic Therapy in Oncology

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
26.02.2002

Leading Institute
Sukhumi Institute of Physics and Technology, Georgia, Tbilisi

Supporting institutes

  • Tbilisi State Medical University / Research Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine / National Center of Therapy, Georgia, Tbilisi

Collaborators

  • Mayo Clinic, USA, FL, Jacksonville

Project summary

Oncology has been an unsolved field of medicine until now, and occupies one of the leading places in the reasons of human death.

Together with surgery, chemical and radio-therapy laser has started finding wider and wider application in treating malicious tumours; cancer photo-diagnostics and photodynamic treatment are among such methods.

Method of photo-finding, or photodynamic diagnostics at the initial, or zero cancer stage is based on the phenomenon of tumour cells fluorescence after the irradiation of the suspicious sector with the light of a definite wavelength; thus the ability of malignant cells to accumulate fluorescent substances, such as porphirine compared to the healthy cells is used.

Photodynamic tumour treatment is based on selective effect of the laser radiation onto the tumour cells and tissues, preliminary sensibilised with special substances. Laser radiation of the wavelength, corresponding to the photosensibiliser’s absorption band penetrates the tumour tissue and in the result of photodynamic effect causes the cells, accumulating the photo-sensibiliser to generate highly active singlet oxygen, which damages the cell structures and destructs the cells, containing sufficient quantities of the photo-sensibiliser.

Today scientific base of the photo-dynamic therapy are developed in detain in numerous experimental and clinical studies, which started a century back by Raab. Photodynamic diagnostics and treatment are comparatively cheap and rather effective, safe and fast polyclinic methods, causing no damage to the vital ability of the patient.

However toxicity if the photo-sensibilisers and rather shallow penetration into the visible part of the tumour do not allow to use the complete potential of such methods for successful tumour eradication.

Georgia possesses experience in developing and using fibre-optic systems, and the experience of successful application of laser methods for the treatment of some forms of cardio-vascular, gastro-intestinal systems and liver. It should be noted in these cases not generally used local laser effect was used, but intravenous blood radiation with laser was used for the first time. Prospects of intravenous laser application for photodynamic treatment in oncology seems interesting and promising.

Basic expected results:

– low-dimension fibre-optic laser with light diode pumping will be developed on the base of a multi-component glass with low non-active loses at the rare-earth ion generation wavelength (at the operating wavelength of 1.06 mm for activating ions Nd3+), designed for medical purposes;


– technology of making fibre-optic probes and catheters with spherical and hyperbolic microlenses for testing radiation and biological tissues irradiation and methods of studying their optical features will be developed;
– method for increasing resolution of various cancer form diagnostics in clinics will be developed using known sensibilisers, also obtained using original methods will be developed;
– usefulness of treating early and neglected forms of cancer will be demonstrated at the experimental models using intravenous laser effect;
– a mathematical model of diagnostics and treatment of early and neglected forms of cancer will be developed on the base of diagnostics algorithm;
– the obtained results will be used for developing recommendations for testing the most promising methods in clinics.

The offered project will be the initial step for the introduction of photodynamic diagnostics and therapy in Georgia.


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