Precipitation Enhancement in Eastern Georgia
Groundwork for the Precipitation Enhancement Activities in Eastern Georgia Aiming to Work out Modern Technology Applicable to the South Caucasus Region
Tech Area / Field
- OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Hydrometeorology, Georgia, Tbilisi
- National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, CO, Boulder
Project summaryThe precipitation enhancement problem gained specific urgency in light of marked tendency to the evident decrease of world fresh water resources in the end of XX century. Up to now the weather modification activities are carried out in 24 countries over the area of 1.4 million km2. Substantial part of them is devoted to the precipitation enhancement (PE).
The problem on the possibility of PE in the South Caucasus first was set up in the beginning of 1970s, in connection with the necessity of partial restoration of water resources of the Lake Sevan. The Institute of Hydrometeorology of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, at that time being the Transcaucasian Hydrometeorological Research Institute (ZakNIGMI), from the start of these activities took leading position in this undertaking. By the end of 1970s the Institute expanded the PE activities in the basins of River Iori and Lake Paravani in Eastern Georgia as well, and in the middle of 1980s – over the hailprotected territories in Eastern Georgia with the area of 5000 km2. In the basin of Lake Sevan summer clouds were predominantly seeded using the aircraft, and winter clouds – by the ground aerosol generators. In Eastern Georgia convective clouds in the warm period of the year were mainly seeded using the anti-hail rockets “Alazani”. The guidance of cloud seeding operations and detection of their effectiveness was performed by the MRL-5 and MRL-2 meteorological radars, operated manually.
As a result of these activities at the confidence level of 90-95% it has been defined that seasonal/annual sums of precipitation could be increased by 10-15%, while the corresponding amount of river runoff in experimental basins could be augmented by 20-30%.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union the PE activities in the South Caucasus were stopped and for the past 12 years relevant equipment became worthless.
The aim of the project is scientific, technical, economic and ecological groundworking for the organization of PE activities in Eastern Georgia using contemporary means of ecologically safe reagents’ delivery to the clouds, computerized radars for the identification of seedable objects, for seeding the clouds and registration of its efficiency. The methods of economic assessment of seeding efficiency would be elaborated as well, taking into account the altered economic relations in agriculture, energy and municipal services, which are the major consumers of water resources in the Region. The ecological grounding of activities would include the determination of utmost norms for the application of different reagents to ensure the minimum anthropogenic loading on the atmospheric air, surface water, soil and vegetation cover. Considering the latest achievements in the field of PE in developed countries, the modern methods for the analysis of cloud seeding data would be offered, and numerical experiments will be carried out on the modelling of seeding different types of clouds under the conditions of Eastern Georgia. The project results could be used to organize and undertake the same type of activities in other countries of South Caucasus Region – Azerbaijan and Armenia, which are also experiencing the fresh water deficit.
The main portion of PE activities in Eastern Georgia is to be carried out using anti-hail rockets, which could be produced at the military facility in Georgia. The transfer to the manufacturing of peaceful produce at this facility would meet the ISTC goals and objectives.
The foreign collaborator will promote in getting information on the latest achievements in the field of PE worldwide, participate in the elaboration of recommendations to choose methods and means of seeding different types of clouds and assist in drawing plans to develop PE activities in Eastern Georgia, as well as in compilation of the Final Report on the project.
The implementation of the project at the requested level would be provided by the participation of skilled and known specialists both in the sphere of “weapons” industry and in the field of scientific grounding, carrying out and efficiency assessment of PE activities, having experience of many years and acknowledged works in these directions.
Principal results, which are expected to be gained in the end of the project implementation would be:
- Selection of contemporary ways and reagents for the seeding of clouds, applicable to the conditions of Eastern Georgia.
- Elaboration of complex method for the estimation of seeding efficiency.
- Working out of a plan for the stage-by-stage development of PE activities in Eastern Georgia on the basis of modern means of reagent delivery and radar monitoring of cloud seeding operations.
- Accomplishment of economic and ecological groundworking for carrying out in the present conditions of PE activities in Eastern Georgia.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.