Mining with Controlled Explosions
Mining Ways of Controlled of Explosive Breaking of Rocks
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
Non-Traditional Technologies of Deep Boring SEC, Kazakstan, Almaty
- JSC Machine Works, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany, Clausthal\nMichigan Technological University, USA, MI, Houghton
The aim of the project is increase of profitable usage of explosion energy in 2 times and more that at present is quite low and it does not surpass 10 %. New technologies of explosive breaking of rocks worked out by author have no analogies in world practice and meet the requirements resource-conserving and ecological safety.
Using new technology of well breaking in terms of hardness f=9-15 and well depth of 20 m, you can achieve even splitting of rocks with lumpiness:
· within limits of 90-180 mm without reduction of specific consumption of explosive substances;
· within limits of 170-240 mm with reduction of specific consumption of explosive substances of 20-25 % and decrease drilling expenses (by moving apart well pattern) of 10-12 %.
Compact loading of working ground’s ledge with broken rock mass of 85-97 % is possible with unscathed way of explosive breaking with reduction specific expenditure of explosive substances of 25-35 %.
Disintegrated way of blasting driving without drilling is worked out on the basis of blasting cutting of rocks. Tentative tests of special form charge with 1 kg mass are special out for blasting cutting of cliff rocks of fifth category blasting. During the blasting of such charge the cut (crater of destruction) was attained by depth 0.4-0.45 m, diameter 0.14-0.21 m with loosening of rocks around the cut of diameter 0.6-0.65 m. Explosive cutting of rocks is carried out without brisant influence of explosion energy on destroyed massif. This method can be applied in seismic dangerous regions.
Drilling process is very labor consuming and occupies 37-55 % in technological cycle. Refusal from drilling process cancels necessity of acquisition of completing articles as bars crowns and it cancels necessity of operating and energetic expenses. Besides that, labor expenses and prime cost of linear meter of working decrease and driving time during underground constructions raise.
New technology application of explosive breaking provides selective mining extraction of mineral and blast-hole efficiency can be raised of 15-20 % and bring to 0.99-1.0 in the conditions of hard blasting quartzite and depth of blast-holes of 2.5-3 m.
New scientific developments were examined in pits and quarries of mining industry of republic of Kazakhstan, but some of them were secured by test acts. 324 wells with diameter of 250 and 150 mm were blasted in the tests and 85 blast-holes were blasted in the underground conditions. Only during well breaking. Well diameter is 250 mm, 297000 m3 of rock mass was beaten off with fact saving on drilling of 220 linear meters and more than 18 tons of explosive substances.
Above said developments can be applied in mining industry, underground building, oil-gas industry, geophysical works and other industry branches where the explosion energy of explosive substances is used. It is necessary to continue research works for development of scientific-technical grounds for each branch for what it needs finance support. Wide introduction of worked out ways of controlled explosive breaking will allow intensifying production processes and minerals extraction.