Plant Medicament for Nervous System
Elaboration of the Methods for the Production and Application of the Plant Source Preparation to Restore Central Nervous System and Psychical Functions
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DRG/Drug Discovery/Medicine
3 Approved without Funding
JSC Biochimmash, Russia, Moscow
- Moscow State University / Department of Biology, Russia, Moscow
- Cornell University / Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, USA, New York\nKorea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute, Korea, Taejon\nUCLA School of Medicine/Department of Neurology, USA, CA, Los-Angeles
Project summaryIntroduction and Overview.
Recently researchers and producers pay more attention to biological active substances of different plants. The fundamental research of biological active (bioactive) substances of plant origin, subtracted through biotechnological ways are based on the need of understanding of molecular mechanisms of activity of tissues and organs and their integration in the organism as a whole. The 33-rd Congress of International Union if Physiological Sciences (IUPS) in New Zealand in August of 2001 was dedicated. Practically these research is needed since the trust to phytotherapy among population in developing countries is growing, the researchers are looking for new phyto medicines and they are improving the old ones for phytotherapy, neurology, psychiatry, oncology and other areas of medicine.
It has been announced publicly that 33% of patients in US are taking phyto medicines. 60 mln. Of Americans in 1997 were using herbs with medical reasons. The market capacity was US $3,24 bln. / Johnston, 1997; Miller, 1998/.
The prevention and treatment of epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, different problems of memory and cognitive functions are the crucial tasks of modern medicine because on the one hand they are quite spreaded but on the other hand the medicines that doctors can use to treat problems that were mentioned above are not that effective and very expensive. As the result of studies that were held by scientists of several countries (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia; The Institute of Ginseng and Tobacco, Korea) the antiepileptic properties of ginseng and different extracts of ginseng administrated intranasal in a systematic way expressed in the release of seizures and in different models of epilepsy full coping of fits. The simultaneous effect of improving spatial memory and positive effect of coping the loss of cognitive function during seizures as well as the improvement of memory in experimental amnesia in the experiments using animals were also shown /Chepurnov et al; 1995-2000/.
The positive effect of ginseng and its component in the process of postnatal development of animal brain (in the experiments from the birth up to maturity) was shown, this testifies concerning the possibility of large prevention application of ginseng in some neurological diseases of children. These data were proven in the experiments held by researchers of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University and Korean Research Institute of Ginseng and Tobacco (KGTRI) (1994). Scientists from Korea and USA discovered what components of Ginseng have binding with GABA receptors, thus start inhibitory antiepileptic brain system.
Based on all mentioned above, in Russia the development of a new medicine using bioactive components of ginseng was suggested. This new medicine is mainly for the treatment of certain forms of epilepsy in neurology. There was a possibility of applying this medicine in the treatment of children seizure, syndrome of multiple sclerosis and other diseases, which can negatively effect memory and cognitive function. Ginseng has a protective property on liver when is used in the complex of antiepileptic drugs, and it is also effective in the period of reconvolensation after neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy or in neurooncology. Having the positive side effects (hypoglycemic, improving the diabetic symptoms, antineoplastic, antimitogenic activity, hypothensive effect, influences in cardiovascular system, antistress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effect, protective effect in hepar) as a base of prognosis for large demand in the market for practical neurology and psychotherapy.
JSC “Biochimmash” and Lomonosov Moscow State University together have developed such a medicine, in order to avoid a ginseng deficit and to lower the cost of finished product the biomass of ginseng produced biotechnologically was used. During that process there was used a newly developed technology of a large-scale submerged cultivating of ginseng cells in suspension in bioreactors with a capacity up to 2.5 cubic meters (AS USSR № 799420, 1980; S. E. Strogov et al., 1990, 1997) and a new culture of ginseng cells containing no less ginsenosides than a genuine ginseng root (N.A.Konstantinova et al., 1993; patent № 2052925, 1996).
A new medicine which is a sterile solution of dry extract of ginseng cultivated cell was developed. A biomedical assertion has proved antiepileptic properties of new medicine. Yet for the lack of finances and time in the process of a new preparation developing the content, the final formula, the method of application, as well as commercial production technology and production substances were not optimized. Due to this fact the project of developing optimal content, formula, method of application, production technology for an artificial ginseng components medicine that would recover central nervous system and psycho disorders is proposed. The goal of this project is being achieved through the set of physiochemical, pharmacological, biomedical, preclinic, toxicological, and technological experiments.
The medicine can be made of natural or artificial ginseng components such as saponins, polysaccharides, peptides and other necessary substances. Besides the traditional application methods such as pills and injections for antiepyleptici medicines and food supplements for ginseng there are original ways of administrating it (intranasal, introbuccal, and by biocarriers – erythrocytes).
As a rule herbal based medicines are being administered together with non-traditional medicines. In this case the treatment is the result of both positive and negative working together of several medicines. Knowing the molecular mechanisms and “targets” for herb-based medicines is crucial for understanding the human body biology.
The study of some new ginsenosides and the search for better compositions and their operation in human organism help to understand the failures in applying different medicines. For example it is impossible to combine together ginseng substances and corticosteroids and estrogens (with exception of Ro, ginsenosides are steroid saponins). It is important to avoid administering ginseng to people with maniac depression psychosis. It is necessary to mention that 25% of all health products on the market contain ginseng (Liberty, 1978). Scientifically based ginseng replacement with bioactive substances having the same properties is profitable both theoretically and practically (ginseng contains 20 ginsenosides and peptides including PACAP).
As a result of this project held in vivo using animals and in vitro using tissue cultures a final formula and application method of new medicine based on artificially cultivated ginseng cells for coping central neurological and psychiatric disorders will be developed. A new way of obtaining active components from the biomass was developed. This research will have a value of fundamental biological and technological base for making a new medicine using ginseng cells biomass.
The results received through the research can be used by the original team or transferred to companies interested in this project for working out technical, technological, and organizational documentation needed for the substance production, conducting clinic tests, getting the permission for marketing and putting it into medical practice. A team responsible for the project is considering the possibility of producing the medicine using facilities of JSC “Biochimmash” or another biotechnological enterprise that has research, and production equipment for cultivating ginseng cells.
Patenting of our research results and technology is possible.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives.
The project is in the full accordance with the activity of ISTC. Specialists formerly engaged in defense industry in close contact with other specialists from different countries will carry it out. The goal of this work it to take care of social and economical problems (to create a social important and economically effective production considering ecological needs, i.e. protecting rare and disappearing plant species genofond).
Scope of Activities.
The project includes theoretical and practical research and technology developing in order to solve the next tasks:
1. Ginseng-based formula optimization (medicine or food supplement) to recover central nervous system and psychic disorders.
2. Developing final ginseng-based form of medicine for recovering central nervous system and psychic disorders.
3. Biomedical animal tests of a preparation on the basis of cultivated ginseng cells biomass for recovering central nervous system and psychic disorders.
Dealing with the first task implies searching for active ginseng components responsible for antiepileptic properties (stage 1.1). Following this the optimal ginseng component combination for maximal curing effect has to be found (stage 1.2). In addition to this the extraction method of active components from cultivated ginseng cells biomass has to be developed.
Dealing with the second task implies proving the right formula combination for treating neurological diseases (stage 2.1) then defining optimal content and quantity of different components of medicine (stage 2.2); and eventually developing production technology of final cultivated ginseng cell biomass based medicine form (stage 2.3).
Dealing with the third task implies adequate substance production in the quantities adequate for tests and control (stage 3.1), and finally conducting biomedical animal tests (stage 3.2).
All the tasks will be carried out both by “Biochimmash” and Lomonosov Moscow State University in accordance with the main profile of these institutions. “Biochimmash” specialists are responsible for extraction and physicochemical examination of different biomass components as well as final form of cultivated ginseng cell biomass medicine. Whereas University specialists will be responsible for biomedical animal tests.
Direction of the researches, data analyzing, and reports will be coordinated. The results will be presented in the form of reports, articles, and patenting.
Role of foreign collaborators.
According to the scope of the activities within the project it is proposed the cooperation with foreign institutions – collaborators; exchange of information in the course of project’s performance, including submission to ISTC of the comments to the reporting materials, participation in the project’s technical activity, that will be performed by ISTC specialists, rendering assistance at the visiting of international undertakings, performance of joint studies, seminars and symposia.