Radiation Sources for Therapy of Tumors
Development of Sealed Radiation Sources for Therapy of Malignant Tumors in the Vision Organ
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-RAD/Photo and Radiation Chemistry/Chemistry
- FIR-EXP/Experiments/Fission Reactors
- FIR-ISO/Isotopes/Fission Reactors
- FIR-NOT/Nuclear and Other Technical Data/Fission Reactors
3 Approved without Funding
FEI (IPPE), Russia, Kaluga reg., Obninsk
- MNTK "Eye Microsurgery", Russia, Moscow\nFederal State Institution “The Gelmgoltz Moscow Research Institution of Eye Diseases”, Russia, Moscow
- Curative Technologies Corporation, USA, WA, Richland
Project summaryA settled opinion has been formed to date that the treatment of malignant tumors of the vision organ must be safe for the organ. The treatment that is safe for the organ has the best long-term prognosis; more than 90% of the treated patients have 5-year survival history. However the ophthalmic applicators (OA) being produced currently (not only domestically but also worldwide) are limited in their types, dimensions, OA design versions, and the radionuclides applied. Possibilities for their application as regards sizes, geometry and localizations of tumors are limited, too.
Besides, it is necessary to develop new source forms (needles, granules) for irradiating tumors of the eye accessory apparatus and the orbit.
The goal of the proposed project is development of sealed radiation sources (SRS) and their sets for X-ray therapy of malignant tumors in the vision organ of adult patients and children. The combined efforts and experience of ophthalmologic practitioners, design engineers and engineers-physicists must lead to development of the SRS that differ from the already existing ones in their geometry, design and the active component composition. The newly developed sources must meet the demands of ophthalmologists who have broad practical experience and are not satisfied with the available sets of the SRS. New SRS types proposed by them will make it possible to treat such disease forms of the vision organ for which the available SRS are not sufficient. The following tasks will have to be solved for achieving the goal set:
- To systematize the frequently occurring localizations and shapes of malignant tumors in the vision organ and to select appropriate shapes and designs of the SRS meeting the demands of practitioners. To perform studies for determining radionuclides with which the therapy of malignant tumors will be more effective.
- To develop technologies of production of the radionuclides selected and their plating on SRS substrates, technologies of fabrication of parts of complex geometry and the SRS sealing technology.
- To develop geometrical models of the SRS on the basis of the selected designs for calculation of the absorbed dose rate (ADR) in a malignant tissue by MCNP code. To calculate dosimetry specifications of each SRS type by MCNP code. To develop an algorithm and modules of the ADR calculation using the SRS dosimetry specifications and to calculate the ADR distribution in a malignant tumor and adjacent organs. To calculate coefficients connecting activities of the radionuclides in the SRS and reference sources with the ADR in the detector of the facility for measuring the ADR on SRS surfaces. To certify the reference sources on the basis of the obtained data for metrological provision of the SRS production.
- To produce pilot SRS and to perform technical and biological tests of them.
- To perform medical trials of pilot SRS.
For solving these tasks the project participants possess technical means and research potential necessary, namely:
- the experience of fabrication of sealed radiation sources of various geometry and purpose of application, radioactive raw materials, other materials and technical equipment, special premises in the (State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering);
- skilled personnel, equipment and experimental base (Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Eye Diseases named after Gelmgolts and Intersectoral Research and Technology Center “Eye Microsurgery”).
The development of sealed radiation sources for X-ray therapy of malignant tumors in the vision organ will make it possible to take the next step forward in the development of nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy as well as to facilitate re-orientation of scientists earlier involved in the activities of defense (military) character in the field of physics and chemistry of fissile materials and reactor technology into the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy.