Improvement of Steels Corrosion Resistance
Improvement of Corrosion Resistance of Constructional Steels in Liquid Pb and Pb-Bi Alloys by Means of Their Surface Modification with the Help of Pulsed Electron Beams and Protective Coatings
Tech Area / Field
- FIR-MAT/Materials and Materials Conversion/Fission Reactors
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya
NIIEFA Efremov, Russia, St Petersburg
- TsNIIKM PROMETEY (Construction Materials), Russia, St Petersburg\nFEI (IPPE), Russia, Kaluga reg., Obninsk
- CEA / Saclay (Essonne) / Service de la Corroson, d'Electrochimie et de Chimie des Filides, France, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex\nCEA / Saclay (Essonne) / Service de la Corroson, d'Electrochimie et de Chimie des Filides / Departament de Physico-Chimie service de la corrosision et du comportement des materiaux dans leur environment, France, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex\nEURATOM-Ciemat, Spain, Madrid\nForschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt / Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Germany, Karlsruhe
Project summaryConsiderable attention is now focused in many countries on the development of a design of natural-safety nuclear reactors and subcritical reactors controlled by a proton accelerator (accelerator driven subcritical systems - ADS). The intended use of these reactors is energy production and the burning of actinides. The concepts of such reactors include liquid metal cooling systems on the basis of Pb or Pb-Bi. In ADS, the coolant is also a target in which neutrons are generated under the action of a proton beam.
One of the most serious problems, to which a solution is required for successful realization of such reactors, is liquid-metal corrosion of constructive steels. The purpose of the project is to develop and substantiate an effective way to protect constructive steels from corrosion in liquid Pb and Pb-Bi melts at temperatures higher than 500°C via modification of their surface properties with the help of pulsed intense electron beams. An increase in corrosion firmness is reached by formation of oxide covers or by surface doping of steels.
For genuine promotion of this new means of constructive steel protection the following tasks have to be solved:
– optimization of the steel composition;
– optimization of electron-beam parameters and treatment modes for different types of steels;
– determination of the influence of the surface-alloyed layer composition on the phase composition of the oxide film;
– study of film growth kinetics in liquid Pb and Pb-Bi melts;
– study of the surface-alloyed layer phase composition and mechanical property changes at thermal exposure, connected with the realization of FexAlx intermetallides;
– hazard evaluation of destruction and exfoliation of both oxide film and surface layer under the action of stresses and thermal cycles;
– study of the influence of surface treatment technologies on the corrosion stability of steels: type, quantity and combination of alloyed components; temperature, flow rate and nature of Pb and Pb-Bi melts, flowing around constructive material samples.
Participating institutions have the requisite equipment and high-qualified specialists with considerable experience of the project theme. At the Efremov Institute two pulsed electron-beam accelerators GESA-1 and GESA-2 will be manufactured, and a special installation with diagnostic equipment, for work on modification of surface properties of materials, will be prepared. At the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering investigations will be performed on available equipment, including the following facilities: non-isothermal corrosion-test facilities SM-1, SM-2, ZU-1, ZU-2; convection loops KP-1, KP-2, DP-2. At the CRISM “Prometey” experimental works will be conducted at the scientific-experimental complex. Long-life testing in the fluxes of Pb and Pb-Bi melts will be carried out at the X3 and X6 facilities. Additionally, the UME-10T machine will be used for thermo-cycling tests and AIMA-5-1 – for crawling testing.
The assumed foreign collaborators on the project are: Germany (FzK); France (CEA/Saclay); Spain (CIEMAT). Representatives of these institutions took part in preparation of the Project. They will prepare samples of steels for treatment and testing, participate in development of the program and methods of investigations, participate in the performance of experiments at the facilities of the participating Institutions, and take part in the discussion of results.