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Secondary Metabolites of Fungi for Pesticides

#KR-1388


Biotechnology of Secondary Metabolites of Fungi as Resources for the Development of New Pesticides

Tech Area / Field

  • AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
  • BIO-CHM/Biochemistry/Biotechnology
  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
23.01.2006

Completion date
19.08.2008

Senior Project Manager
Visser H

Leading Institute
Institute of Biology and Pedology, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • University of Guelph / College of Biological Science, Canada, ON, Guelph

Project summary

The goal of the work: To find out new substances having strong insecticide and herbicide activity for the most hazardous pests and perennial weeds that are difficult to eradicate.

The problem urgency

The problem of the development of ecologically safe pesticides with new mechanisms of action is very urgent. The main reasons for that are as follows: first, the appearance of pest forms resistant to permitted pesticides, second, the strict requirements to the pesticides applied in terms of their safety for people and the environment. The microbiological method of plant protection could become an alternative to the chemical method, but biopesticides consist of live organisms whose properties are unstable and their effectiveness depends on external conditions. That is why the attention of researchers has been increasingly attracted by a compromise option: the isolation and characterization of pathogenicity factors of biocontrol agents, mainly toxins, in order to create new pesticides on their chemical basis.

Thus, the study of natural substances with insecticidal or herbicidal activity has great prospects. The known spectrum of the fungi species producing biologically active substances (BAS) of this type is yet very narrow. Therefore, the search for new BAS producers and the study of their properties are very topical.

The research objectives:

  1. The screening of new strains of entomopathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi for insecticidal and herbicidal activity.
  2. The isolation and purification of biologically active metabolites.
  3. The determination of the physicochemical properties of the toxins.
  4. The determination of modes of action for selected toxins.
  5. The optimization of toxin production.

Expected Results and Their Application
  • Strains that produce secondary metabolites with toxic properties to harmful insects and weeds
  • Methods of isolation and identification of toxins
  • Description of the physicochemical properties of the toxins
  • Description of the mechanisms of action for the prospective toxins
  • Optimal schematic models of toxin production

Thus, the implementation of this project will enable “weapon” scientists and specialists of Kyrgyzstan, in close cooperation with colleagues from other countries, having re-orientated their capabilities to peaceful activity, to develop advanced technologies for the production of ecologically safe pesticides on the basis of mycotoxins. Besides, the project promotes the solution of the problems of protecting the environment from contamination with chemical pesticides and the protection of plants from pests and weeds both in Kyrgyzstan and in the entire world.


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