Food security and adaptation of agricultural crops
The impact of Climate change and Agroclimatic resources on maintenance of Food Security and creation of adaptation mechanisms
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Water Problems, Hydro-Power Engineering and Ecology, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Nihon University / Department of Geosystem Sciences, Japan, Tokyo
Project summaryThe project aim. Creation of adaptable mechanisms of agricultural crops to new agroclimatic conditions and a plant persification with inclusion of the high productivity cultures and adapted for stressful situations.
The food products manufacture in Tajikistan already faces many serious difficulties caused mainly prompt growth of the population, mountain topography, limitation of farmlands accessible to grain crops and livestock because of abrupt inclinations both high eminences and improper microclimates. The average mean arable land on the person makes 0.14 hectares on the person who at comparison with global average 0.26 ha/person is low enough. Besides degradation of the lands - proceeding as a result of infringement of norms of land tenure, cutting down of woods, degradation of pastures, together with other processes, such as a soil erosion, events of a torrential rain, flooding, salting soils and desertification promote annual reduction of volume of articles of food.
The power along with agriculture is one of key basic branches of economy. The Republic of Tajikistan possesses inexhaustible stocks of water-power engineering. Total annual potential resources of water-power engineering make 527 Bln. kWt∙h and now are used only on 5 %. The fact of presence of large supplies of water-power engineering testifies about coming in the near future building a number of hydroelectric power stations with reservoirs. It also is reflected in Strategy of development of power branch of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Hence at planning of development of agriculture in areas adjoined to water reservoirs it is necessary to consider fact that water reservoirs promote transformation of thermal and radiating balances that in turn causes changes of climatic characteristics over a reservoir and territories adjoining on it.
Researches of dynamics of change of climatic parameters in three agricultural areas adjoining to the Nurek reservoir have shown that the mid-annual temperature for 20 years (1968-2000) has raised 1.0-1.5 oС that has led to decrease in relative humidity on 3-6 % and to increase potential evaporation on 10-26 % in annually and 12-30 % in the period of May –September at decreases of humidity. However in Javan area dynamics of changes of the listed indicators has an opposite tendency: the air temperature and evaporation decreases accordingly on 0.5 and 7.2 % and relative humidity and humidifying factor raise on 7.2 % and 10 % accordingly. Reduction of evaporation in vegetative period in Javan area reaches 12.2 %. Taking into account occurring climatic changes it is necessary to introduce corresponding corrective amendments in water use planning.
By working out of the irrigation regime it is usually considered of meteorological indicators for all period of supervision. But it conducts to essential errors. On the old irrigated lands and files of perspective irrigation by ignoring of the general warming of a climate mode the irrigation regime don’t consider growing requirements for water. For example, in the Javan valley of the Republic of Tajikistan recommended irrigation regimes are connected with the over-expenditure of water resources. Last specifications on irrigation modes to take the Javan valley on mean annual value of humidity (0.35) to the category of droughty areas. But as show the obtained data, for last 20 years evaporation in a valley has decreased almost on 300 mm (17 %), and the amount of precipitation has risen on 70 mm (11 %). As a result value of humidity has risen to 0.45. Hence present irrigating norms for cultivation of cotton in the Javan valley -1100 m3/ha and 3000 m3/ha for a Lucerne are overestimated. Calculations show that unproductive losses of water only on two valleys make more than 60 Mln.m3.
Influence of the project on progress in the field. On completion of researches planned by us scientifically reasonable scenarios and recommendations for cultivation of crops with high value of efficiency and steady against climatic and stressful situations and also increase in efficiency of units of irrigation water and the irrigated lands will be created.
The project participants competence to the specified area. Implementation of the project will be carried out at Institute of Water problems, Hydropower and Ecology AS of the Republic of Tajikistan and in an experimental site of Institute around the Nurek reservoir. The employees of the project have a wide experience in researches of influence of meteorological conditions on a mode of dynamics of development of plants and development of mechanisms of adaptation of plants to changing agroclimatic conditions.
Expected Results and Their Application
As a result of project performance the first step in realization of purposeful management of dynamics of development of plants and methods of their operative adaptation to new environmental conditions will be made and necessity of revision of out-of-date specifications of watering of agricultural crops will be shown. Will be developed criterion of an optimality of placing and building of the water reservoirs providing the minimum influence on biosphere of district and methodology of operative change of agroclimatic conditions (quantity of irrigation water, agrochemistry of soils and norm of mineral fertilizers) depending on change of a microclimate in a zone of influence of water reservoirs. The regulations of cultivation of agricultural grades in a zone of influence of the Nurek water reservoirs providing high indicators of efficiency and steady against stressful climatic factors are established. The structure and properties of the Nurek water reservoir sediments and their mechanism infiltration to underground water-bearing horizons and influences on qualities of underground waters and on dynamics of development of agricultural crops is deciphered. The trend of change of agroclimatic resources of the “Tigers Beam” reserve from a year of filling of the Nurek water reservoir will be established till now and the technical decision on preservation water - marsh resources is offered.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives
This project will correspond to following purposes and tasks of ISTC:
a) to the specialist of Institute of water problems, hydropower and ecology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and other organizations, before connected with working out of the protection frames from weapons of mass destruction possibility of reorientation to peace activity will be given;
b) the project encourages integration of scientist - "armourers" into the international scientific community;
c) the project promotes the decision of variety of the national and international problems connected with maintenance of ecological and food safety in region of the Central Asia.
Role of Foreign Collaborators/Partners
Collaborator will represent available data on a project theme, to make comments on annual reports, to give the right to use available laboratory base, to promote the organization and carrying out of training of the personnel of IWPHE AS RT, to assist participants of the project in visiting of the international meetings and also in the organization and carrying out of joint symposiums and working seminars.