Biological Control of Sunn Bug in Kyrgyzstan
Biological Controls of Sunn Bug the Most Dangerous Pest for Cereals in Kyrgyzstan
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- AGR-FOD/Food & Nutrition/Agriculture
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Kyrgyz Agrarian University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Department of Chemicalization, Protection and Quarantine of Plant, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- University of Wyoming, USA, WY, Laramie\nUniversity of Alberta / Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutrional Science, Canada, AB, Edmonton
Project summaryAreas under agricultural crops are 1,3 mln.ha in Kyrgyzstan, including 500-600 th.ha under cereal crops, and 350-450 th.ha under wheat.
More than 100 species have been registered at the territory of Kyrgyz Republic which may damage cereal crops. Wheat thrips (Haplotrhips tritici Kurd.), ground beetle (Zadrus morio Goeze), grain aphids (Sitobion avenae F., Schizaphis graminum Rond.), Lema (Oulema melanopus L.), Oscinella (Oscinella sp.) and others are spread on spiked cereals, particularly on wheat. But not all of them can be harmful for grain production in the republic. In recent years there is a wide spread and injuriousness of populations of such dangerous pests for spiked cereals (wheat, barley and others) as Lema (Oulema melanopus L.) and especially sunn pest (sunn-pest, Eurygaster intergriceps Put.). Selective monitoring of plantings only in Chui valley in 2006-2007 demonstrated a wide spread and significant injuriousness of these pests. So in accordance with the survey of wheat plantings in Issyk-Ata and Panfilov rayons it was determined in average 0,5-2,0 and more sun pests in 1 m².
In accordance with researches, sunn pest damage mainly winter and spring wheat. In the whole world they call it as the main wheat pest (M.El-Bouhssini, B.L.Parker, 2001). Sunn pests damage also barley but in a less degree. They can also feed grasses. Plants can be damaged by them during the whole vegetation period. In this regard, there are four types of characteristics of affected plants: death of central leaf of young plants; white spike full or partial; deformation of awns; shriveling of grain.
It is determined that soft wheat marked by high vitreousness is the most attractive for sunn pests. the same varieties with vitreous or farinaceous grain can be affected less. Especially sunn pests are dangerous for spring wheat as they damage seedlings at the beginning of tillering. 40-50% of stems die out when the number of sunn pests is 3-5 in 1 m2,, and if number of sunn pests is 8-10 then the figure of damaged stems increases up to 70-80%. At the stage of ear formation pricks of sunn pests into internodes or shaft of ear are reasons of drying and blushing.
The most damage can be done by sunn pests during the grain-filling period. Enzymes which are introduced by sunn pests while feeding split proteins, fat and carbohydrates and as a result of it baking and edibility qualities of flour significantly will be deteriorated. For marketable grain it is not allowed more than 2-3% of damaged grain by sunn pests. With 10% of damaged grain, they lose food quality. Loses of yield are also high. So with the number of 1-3 sunn pests in 1m2 6-7 quintals of wheat will be destroyed on 1 ha of plantings (Jarmuhamedova G.А., 2004).
There are many recommended measures on control of various pests for cereals including sunn pest. One of the widely used methods is the usage of chemicals. In accordance with the experience it is necessary to use chemicals in order to protect cereals even in the years when the number of sunn pests is very low. But, nowadays an expensive price of chemicals, complexity in conducting of chemical control and increase of ecological problems connected with unjustified use of chemicals are the reasons of integrated pest management. The integrated pest management system includes sowing of resistant varieties, measures on improvement of seeds, complex of agro technical measures, use of chemical and biological protective means. Besides at present a threshold of harmful effect is taken into the consideration in taking the decision on choosing measures and methods of control.
Use of integrated pest management in combination with breeding activity allows identifying the level of genetic and varietal difference of wheat and barley in their resistance to sunn pest and gives the possibility to control mechanisms on plant protection.
So, the current work is devoted to comprehensive biological and ecological study of sunn pest, as well as, development of comprehensive integrated protection of cereal crops.
In this regard, the objective of the given project is the development of comprehensive, integrated protection of cereal crops (wheat, barley) against sunn pest.
The main tasks of the project are:
- Monitoring of sunn pest populations in conditions of Kyrgyzstan. Preparing of map on spreading of sunn pests.
- Study of biological and ecological peculiarities of the indicated pest.
- Evaluation and selection of registered and promising varieties of cereal crops resistant to pests on natural, provocative and infection background. Genetic analysis on variety resistance in order to create new sources and donor of immunity.
- Study of possibilities on use of chemical and biological protective means against sunn pest and separate agro technical measures on plant protection.
- Study of biological, chemical and technological qualities of wheat and barley seeds among selected samples.