Phytoindication of Environmental Pollution
Phytoindication of Environmental Pollution
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Biology and Pedology, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Fachhochschule Osnabrück, University of Applied Sciences, Germany, Osnabrück\nUniversita Degli Studi di Siena / Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Italy, Siena
Project summaryThe Kyrgyz Republic is located in the center of the Central Tian Shan and Pamir Alay mountain ranges. Ecosystems are characterized by the persity of biological recourses, a high grade of endemism and the availability of relicts. Increasing anthropogenous influence on the ecological systems and environmental contamination caused by automobile and industrial emissions results in the irregularity and destabilization of ecosystems. The Chu Valley, located in the sub-mountain plain at an attitude of 670 – 850m above sea level and occupying a territory of approximately 1500km2, is the most developed region. The Chu Valley is characterized by the growth of intensive recreational activity and by a very high potential for atmospheric contamination (V zone, PAC = 3,3 – 3,6), while the comparatively closed territory promotes a low self-purification capacity.
The problem of environmental contamination from hazardous vehicle emissions and industrial waste has existed in the Chu Valley for a long period of time. Microelements, pesticides, and radioactive particles have accumulated for decades. No environmentally pure ecosystem remains in the region. The region’s agricultural land and irrigation facilities are under the influence of radioactive sumps.
Vegetation in the valley is subjected to an intensive technogenic effect and, at the same time, it fulfils the function of a sensitive natural indicator.
Plants, mushrooms and lichen that form different environmental food chains are the most suitable organisms, used nowadays for monitoring and as contamination indicators.
Under the influence of technogenesis, these ecological systems experience a wide persity of reactions at different levels of organization (cell, tissue, physiological, biocenotic).
Organism sensibility is also different. Usually, the majority of organisms is comparatively tolerant, others are very sensitive even to low concentrations that slightly exceed background data, but some species have the ability to absorb and neutralize toxic substances.
The present level of plant indicative method provides wide-ranging opportunities and facilitates the development of an indicator system to identify environment contamination and to study the indicative-diagnostic function of species for the selection of optimization methods within the bounds of actual landscape (or ecosystem). There are, however, no similar object concentration limits for all contamination types from an environmental point of view. The development of these criteria is a paramount target of the Project.
The Project aim is development of plant indicative methods for assessment of environment contamination and its application in environmental monitoring (using the Chu Valley of the Kyrgyz Republic as an example).
As a result of project realization the following is expected:
– To use the bioindicative method as a preventive measure, for prevention or minimization of pollutant influence, and to develop relevant procedures.
– To identify factors that determine contamination centers and reasons for their existence;
– To provide ways to neutralize toxic substances collected in the atmosphere, water and soil through plants with accumulating and detoxicating abilities;
– To make models of stable phytocenosis for gas absorbing in industrial districts and the installation of “green filters” at enterprises;
– To use the method of indication, when developing maps of regional ecological zones. The map development process will help both to make a quantity assessment for the long-term average contamination and to trace the movement of human-caused flow and its distribution in the environment;
– To use the mapping method for planning the construction of built-up areas in environmentally favorable zones and arranging better hygiene and sanitary conditions for human health;
– To develop principles of ecological forecasting in the future;
– To develop a data collection and handling system (database) on different test-analyses of biological objects and toxic substances.