Ecological Safety of the Rubber Industry
Ecological Safety of the Rubber Industry: Fundamentals and Technologies
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Scientific Research Institute of Elastomeric Materials and Articles (NIIEMI), Russia, Moscow
- State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Russia, Moscow
- University of Twente / Faculty of Chemical Technology, The Netherlands, Enschede
Project summaryThe rubber industry incorporates large-scale manufactures of tires, rubber products for techniques, everyday necessities, medicine, and it is showed as an enhanced hygienic (including carcinogenic) and ecological hazard. The governmental control is necessary for minimization of the hazard The development of scientific fundamentals of this control is the objective of the Project. The principle of standardization and test of air pollution with the maximum permissible values (MPV) using in most country do not describe the hazard of gas waste of rubber industry. The reasons for this are as follows: a) only part from a few hundreds of gas waste components has MPV, b) the combined influence of components and particularly synergetic affect is not described by MPV.
The essence of the RUBBECOL project is working out a new system standardizing of large group of volatile substances as air pollutants corresponding to plant gas emission instead of standardizing inpidual substances. The "Key substances concept" suggested by NIIEMI is the base of the system.
The system will consist of a computer complex of software (CCS) containing the data bases as follows: gas components - rubber formulation relationship, diffusion coefficients or equations, together with initial data to calculate those coefficients, vapor pressure of volatile substances, toxicological data for mixtures of volatile substances corresponding to factory gas emissions. This CCS will allow one to establish and predict the composition of air pollution only on the rubber formulation (without the chemical analysis), as well as their check of the correspondence the new standards for manufacturing and developing rubbers.
The CCS is believed to present the composition of gas emission from particular manufactures and determine their pollution hazard, that will make it possible to take proper measure for minimizing the hazard in any particular case. Such system has no analogues at present. It can be used not only in Russia but adopted for other countries (specific feature of the rubber industry and terminology of these countries should be taken into account in this case).
The Project work involves three main parts. The first part concerns the investigation of the processes of formation, diffusion and emission of the volatile substances both in form steams and aerosols emitted into the air, and the dependence on temperature of these processes and other factors. The second part concerns the study of cooperative toxicity of these products, elucidation of the dependence of toxicity on gas mix composition, and development of the suggestion on new group standards. The third part is the mathematical treatment of the experimental results, development of the databases and software.
The physical, chemical and toxicological methods of investigations, together with mathematical simulation and programming, will be applied through out this work.
Leading experts of NIIEMI (chemists, product engineers, sanitary experts, mathematicians, and physicists) and GosNIIOhT (chemists and toxicology experts) having the large experience on the Project subject are the main executors of the works.
This work is supposed to provide the bases for development of a new system for safety of the rubber industry. These bases are as follows:
- investigation and mathematical description of physic-chemical processes in the rubber-air system;
- elucidation of toxicological features for mixtures of different Class volatile compounds corresponding in the composition to the emissions from the rubber plants.
- new system to standardize and control the emissions from the rubber industry.
Products of practical use:
(1) suggestions for the development of the standard on group standardization of rubber industry gas emission.
(2) computer data bases, together with software, to predict quantitative and qualitative composition of air pollutants from the rubber industry on the rubber formula and ventilation parameters.
In such a way, a comprehensive system of the scientific principles and technical measures will be development to minimize damaging effects of rubber industrial processes on the engaged personnel and environment.
Plans for further investigations are also supposed to be outlined, such as:
(a) development of the international standard of environmental pollution by rubber industrial plants;
(b) elucidation of influences of noises, vibrations, illumination and other operating conditions on the intensity of action of chemical factors;
(c) extension of the obtained results on technical and everyday usage of rubber products;
(d) development of formulation-chemical and technological routs to decrease the intensity of harmful wastes release during manufacturing of rubber products;
(e) construction of a self-optimizing ("intelligent") ventilation system to ensure a maximum effectiveness at the lowest consumption of energy and materials,
(f) extension of the obtained results on other industries.
The interested scientist and companies are invited to collaborate in Project by ISTC and the project manager. It is proposed to publish common scientific results. The practice products of collaboration may be used by the collaborators with ISTC permission.