Sources of Leptospirosis in Tajikistan
To Study Epidemiological Situation and Etiological Structure of Leptospirosis’s Sources in the Republic of Tajikistan
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology
- MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
3 Approved without Funding
Republican Center for State Sanitary Epidemiological Control, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Institute "Biological preparations" of Academy of agricultural sciences RT, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Institut Pasteur, France, Paris\nUniversidade Nova de Lisboa / Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Portugal, Lisbon\nCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) / National Center for Zoonotic, Vectorborne and Enteric Diseases, USA, GA, Atlanta\nKIT Biomedical Research, The Netherlands, Amsterdam
Project summaryMany Leptospirosis cases up to 1994 were observed among population and animals in the Republic of Tajikistan. No any laboratory investigation was done to confirm cases and case is diagnosing according to the clinical symptoms. In 1993 outbreak of Leptospirosis (160 cases) were registered in Temurmalik district, and following year number of cases reduced to 92 cases. In 1993 total 22 cases of Leptospirosis were diagnosed in Tursunzade districts of Tajikistan. Also some sporadic cases were observed in other parts of the Republic of Tajikistan.
In the last 11 years no any cases of Leptospirosis among population in the Republic of Tajikistan were registered, but it doesn’t mean that there are no cases, but maybe they are not detected or no informed, although epizootically country is not safe. There is possibility that patients registered under other diseases, or missed by health personnel.
In the Republic of Tajikistan no any laboratory investigation is going on to diagnose Leptospirosis, because of shortage of reagents and medium.
In 2006 in the Republic of Tajikistan according to official Government statistics 80 cases of Leptospirosis without laboratory confirmation were registered among population. But in fact real number of cases can be doubled 10 times. No any laboratory confirmation was done due to lack of diagnostics and reagents.
Through one example I would like to describe the case of outbreak in the jamoat of Mekhrobod in Fayzabad district of the Republic of Tajikistan, where from March to April, 2006 ill community members started to admit for the treatment to hospital. Morbidity rate was 60.0 per 1000 population. According to the clinical data from first quarter of 2007 170 cases were registered among population of this district. In that period in the jamoat of Mekhrobod 90 cases were registered, in village Navobad 15 cases and village Lolagi 20 cases. In the other parts of district few cases were registered. The main cause of the spread of infection was use of drinking water from community pipes, which was brought up from the mountainous open sources and with no granted quality. Area, where this sources of water is exist, was considered by experts of Republican Center for State Sanitary Epidemiological Surveillance as a source of Leptospirosis, because many wild animals hosted along the water, and also can be reservoir of Leptospirosis agents.
Water factor has the leading role in the mechanism of transmission of infection in the endemic focuses of Leptospirosis. Role of rodent transmission of infection increase during flooding and rain seasons as observed according to the epidemiological development of the process. There is evidence that rural population infected in 1.3 times more then urban, because rural have more expose to the risk factors, like feeding of animals, agriculture activities and etc.
During epidemiological investigation in the recent foci it was confirmed that the main course of contamination was drinking water. The diseases were confirmed according to the clinical symptoms among sick and characteristics of diseases among animals (dogs).
There were misunderstanding between two services; human and animal sectors and other involved what should be consider as a source of contamination and diagnostics of diseases. But unfortunately we didn’t conduct laboratory investigation and couldn’t prove the evidence. Thus no any investigation is carried out by the human and animals services and infection can be spread to other communities of Fayzabad and possibly to other neighbouring districts and other republic.
Therefore in the future we need to strengthen laboratory diagnostics of Leptospirosis, to detect diseases, take detailed actions as an epidemiological as a prevention and conduct surveillance and protect population and moreover organise rapid follow up actions to localise infection.