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Semiconductor Coordinate-Sensitive Detectors


Semiconductor Coordinate-Sensitive Detectors of Radiation Particles on Basis of Functionally Integrated Pixel Structures

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
  • INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
  • PHY-ANU/Atomic and Nuclear Physics/Physics

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Lapidus O V

Leading Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Nuclear Research, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Scientific Research Institute of Molecular Electronics and Plant "Micron", Russia, Moscow reg., Zelenograd\nResearch Institute of Scientific Instruments, Russia, Moscow reg., Lytkarino\nNIKIMT (Institute of Assembly Technology), Russia, Moscow


  • Kinki University / School of Science and Engineering, Japan, Osaka\nInstitute for Advanced Studies, Japan, Tokyo

Project summary

The modern measuring equipment and experimental nuclear physics make higher demands of detector techniques designed for registration of radiation that, in parallel with the appearance of new scopes of application of semi-conductor detectors, has necessitated the development of essentially new recording devices.

The analysis of tendencies of development of modern microelectronics has shown the efficiency of the functional integration of the element base of Very Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. The major scientific and practical problem is to apply the functional integration achievements in the methodology of designing of semi-conductor radiation detectors.

At present in scientific researches and practical activities are used the discrete semi-conductor devices of big sizes, in particular, discrete strip detectors, to determine the particle detection point.

Instead of discrete detectors of great size made on basis of the p-i-n diode, it is offered in the project to use a specialized VLSI circuit constructed on basis of functionally integrated structures of smaller size as well as to develop and investigate potentialities of a new-generation coordinate-sensitive detector.

The best operational parameters of such detectors will be caused by amplifying properties of the functionally integrated cells (pixels) constituting VLSI circuits. It makes possible to receive sensitivity, processing speed, coordinate accuracy simultaneously in two coordinates at least by one order of magnitude higher than recent analogues can provide.

The purpose of the project is the elaboration and manufacturing of new-generation coordinate–sensitive detectors considerably differing in basic operational parameters from traditional analogues.

The devices under development have no analogues in Russia and abroad, and may form a basis of new type of devices having scientific and practical application.

While performing the project, samples of new detectors constructed on basis of functionally integrated pixel structures will be investigated and designed:

1) with the purpose of the effective collection of charge carriers created by an ionizing radiation, the high-resistance silicon (r ~ 3ґ102 - 5ґ103 Ohm*cm) will serve as a basis for the substrate material;

2) to guarantee a necessary operating speed and high amplification, is supposed to realize the detector structure with topological sizes of the emitter area of no more than 1.5 ґ 1.5 mm2, the bedding depths of the emitter and collector junctions no more than 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively.

It is supposed in the project to create a test crystal containing various functionally integrated pixel structures optimized for detection of specific radiation types.

In particular, a hybrid of the p-i-n diode and bipolar transistor is effective for high-speed amplitude registration of heavy charged particles. A functionally integrated structure with the buried collector will make it possible to detect weakly ionizing relativistic particles and X-rays.

While performing the project, it is necessary to carry out the computer simulation of ionization processes occurring inside the semi-conductor structures of the proposed designs as well as to estimate the amplification of initial ionization currents produced by various radiation types and operating speed of the pixel structures under construction. Besides it is necessary to design a test chip containing different types of functionally integrated pixels; to manufacture pixel prototypes on basis of well-known technologies of bipolar VLSI circuits and VLSI circuits containing complementary pairs of insulated-gate FETs (C-MOS); and to carry out experimental testing of the manufactured pixels for the influence of and response to different kinds of ionizing radiation. VLSI circuits with pixel structures containing C-MOS will make it possible to memorize the charge package caused by particles traversing the pixel area and, as a result, to detect fluxes of simultaneously arriving particles, i.e., to form a visible image.

On basis of experimental results, technological parameters of functionally integrated structures will be constructively optimized as well as utilization recommendations for specific detectors will be formulated.

Results of development may be applied for the construction of new control devices of medical purpose as well as in detectors of light and X-rays, scanners, touch-sensitive devices, random-access memory etc.