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Sensor Technology for Toxic Gases Monitoring

#1387


Development of Efficient Sensor Technology, Prototypes of Gas Sensors and, Based on Them, Improvement of Methods of Explosive and Toxic Gases Monitoring

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
29.11.1998

Leading Institute
Scientific and Technical Center of Measuring Gas Sensors, Russia, Moscow reg., Lyubertsy

Supporting institutes

  • Moscow State University / Department of Chemistry, Russia, Moscow\nKurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Project summary

The project involves carrying out investigations and development of design and technology for manufacturing of various gas sensors intended for monitoring of environmental pollution, namely in big cities. Based on planar microelectronics and solid microweighing technology the methods will be developed for production of thermochemical sensors-pellistors, and those based on metal oxides and organic materials. The investigations will be performed with the aim to produce planar substrates for sensing elements based on ultra-thin (reinforced with strong and thermoresistant films made of diamond substitute) membrane structures in order to reduce power consumption, and to develop new catalyst compositions to improve parameters of catalytic sensors. Among promising materials to produce sensing elements of sensors different organic materials will be studied, and first of all, metal compounds of phtalocyanines. Various conditions of sensor operation will be studied taking into account particularities of gas molecules sorption and catalytic reactions course at the surface of sensing element of a sensor. The expected working characteristics of gas monitors based on the sensors to be developed will be competitive with their analogs produced by other firms. Their comparative characteristics are given below:

Company

Draeger
Germany

Figaro
Japan

Motorolla
USA

NTC IGD
Russia

NTC IGD
Russia

Characteristic

1. Main analyzed gases

O2, H2, SO2, NO2, CH4, CO, NOX, CO, H2S, NH3, combustible

‘—‘

‘—‘

‘—‘

‘—‘

2. Resolution

Up to 1 ppm

Up to 0.1 ppm

Up to 5ppm

Up to 1 ppm

Up to 1ppm

3. Stability – drift of “constant readings” during 48h of operation

By 5%

By 1%

By 5%

By 5%

By 5%

4. Time of continuous operation, h

1000

10000

1000

10000

10000

5. Cost of sensor, US dollars

20-1000

100-1000

20-1000

20-100

10-100

6. Cost of gas monitor

500-10000

500-10000

500-10000

300-1000

300-1000

7. Power consumption by sensor, mW

100 and over

100 and over

100 and over

50-100

10-100

Within the framework of the project a possibility will be studied to use new sensors manufactured based on microelecronics and three-dimensional technology in the systems of gas components monitoring in various gas media. First of all, it will be methane and other hydrocarbons analysis at mines and in vicinity of gas pipelines. New sensors will be tested for analysis of hydrogen content in ceramic nuclear fuel of nuclear power stations. The work within the project will allow to change direction of research for many research workers formerly involved in research and development for military purposes and to engage them in development of a new generation of sensors for environmental monitoring. Chemical sensors to be developed under the project play an important part in finding solutions to environmental problems (environmental monitoring) and those related to medicine, providing safety at industrial sites where explosive and toxic gases are present, including nuclear reactors.

Investigations of sensors and their practical application exist in almost all countries. A unified international environmental monitoring network is being established where the information can be transmitted both through special communication channels and through commonly accessible Internet system covering the North and the South America, Europe, Japan and in future Russia and the CIS countries. Delay with Russia's and other CIS countries' joining the network is due to a delay in signing intergovernmental agreements and lack in Russia of gas-detecting elements and systems consistent with the international standards of monitoring being in force in the USA, Europe, Japan (for example, monitoring of toxic gases, such as CO, CO2, H2S, CH4, SO2, NO2 and others in the air of big cities according to admissible levels and standards for calibration means, etc.). It is also should be noted, that most of existing international monitoring systems are standard and incorporate semiconductor gas sensing elements of chemical sensors produced using planar microelectronics and solid thin-film technology.

That is why one of the aims of the project together with achieving competitiveness of sensors is development of chemical sensors, and based on them, development of instruments and environmental monitoring systems that meet international requirements and can be used in unified international environmental monitoring system. It will allow to Russia and other countries of the CIS to use international base of situations, research and prognostic data both to remedy rapidly in emergency situations and for the purpose of long-term forecasting of environmental changes in order to take decisions at local, regional and federal and intergovernmental level.

It should be noted that gas monitoring systems with chemical sensors are more operative and have better handling properties (they are extensively used for atmosphere monitoring from airplanes) than those that use the methods of IR and laser spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass-spectroscopy. Moreover, these systems are much cheaper and assure practically the same accuracy of measurement and environmental pollution monitoring. The International and European Conferences on chemical sensors application are regularly held. A wide international cooperation is possible on a range of problems.

As a result of the project realization an efficient sensor technology will be developed and scientific and technical principles of improvement of methods of explosive and toxic gases monitoring will be found. Circuit engineering designs at a level of models of instruments and gas analysis systems will be implemented for further unification of their characteristics with those meeting international standards for products used in the systems of environmental monitoring.

A set of technical documentation for new products as well as these new products themselves, namely, chemical sensors, technology of their manufacturing, methods of monitoring, can be offered to industrial and municipal enterprises.

Specific designs will be protected with the Author's Certificates and Patents, so, they will contain novelty at the world level.

By now one foreign company - OLDHAM FRANCE SA (France) agreed to participate in the project as a collaborator.

Foreign research institutes, private companies and inpidual experts (from the USA, The European Union, Japan, Norway, and South Korea) are invited to join the project as collaborators.

The following forms of cooperation are proposed for the collaborators: organizing of joint seminars and workshops; information exchange in the course of project implementation; providing facilities and taking part in testing; the prototypes of new instruments; providing comments to the technical reports (quarterly, annual, final, etc.), submitted by project participants to the ISTC; cross-checks of results obtained in the course of project implementation; assistance and material support for project participants to join international meetings; etc.


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