Brucellosis of wild animals
Study of prevalence of brucellosis among wild animals and their role in the epidemiological process in the neighboring territories of the Kyrgyz Republic and Republic of Kazakhstan
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Kyrgyz Agrarian University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek\nKazakh Scientific-Research Veterinaty Institute, Kazakstan, Almaty\nRepublican Center of Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- LSU AgCenter, USA, LA, Baton Rouge\nWalter Reed Army Institute of Research / Walter Reed Army Medical Center, USA, Washington DC\nUniversity of Florida, USA, FL, Gainesville
Project summaryBrucellosis belongs to the most widespread and dangerous diseases of animals and humans. The complexity of the problem presented by this infection is caused by a number of biological features of the causative agent of this disease, and the possibility of formation in the natural centers where wild animals are carriers of different Brucella types. The existence
of a wide range of natural carriers (mammals, birds, pincers and insects), the long persistence of a specific variety of the causative agent in the infected organism, and its high stability in the environment all testify to the urgency of this problem.
It is possible to judge further expansion of the range of the causative agent ecology through identification of new Brucella types carried by marine mammals (cetaceans, pinnipeds) and also by some types of rodents. In addition, there are reports of human infection with brucellosis from wild animals.
In Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, brucellosis distribution occurs between people and animals. The highest incidence of people with this infection among the Post-Soviet states is found in Kyrgyzstan, where 3-4 thousand people annually fall ill with a severe form of brucellosis.
A very severe situation with brucellosis is observed among farm animals in the northern and south-eastern regions of the country, where the disadvantaged foci are mainly concentrated. Infection occurs periodically in earlier revitalized points. Therefore, the issues of formation of epizootic foci in isolated regions, repeated outbreaks of brucellosis in the recovered from the disease farms, and the enzootic nature of disease manifestations, requires attention and study.
There are assumptions about the impact of the carriers of bacteria by wild animals in the repeated outbreaks of infection. Kyrgyz and Kazakh scientists confirmed that a large number of different kinds of wild animals (ungulates, carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.) are carriers of brucellosis in nature. There is evidence of susceptibility to brucellosis in over 60 species of vertebrates, and many species are able to maintain the agent of brucellosis for two years or more in their organism without the agent losing virulence.
However, in the study of brucellosis in wildlife, little attention has been paid to Brucella species composition and appliance of a certain biovars, identification and definition of the dissociated forms of Brucella, and the wild isolates’ ability to spread infection.
Project purpose: To study the role of wild animals in brucellosis distribution, and to define the specific structure of Brucella in the wild and its epidemiological value.
In order to achieve the Project’s purpose, the following tasks are planned:
1. Research of wild animals in disadvantaged foci on brucellosis in agricultural animals;
2. Isolation and identification of Brucella in wild fauna;
3. Study of the molecular-biological characteristics of allocated isolates;
4. Define the epidemiological Brucella value circulating among wild animals in the border territories
of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan;
5. Carry out an analysis of brucellosis distribution among the population in disadvantaged foci;
6. Create a map of the spread of brucellosis incidence among wild animals and people using a GIS system;
Development of recommendations for brucellosis prevention.