Medical Consequences of Irradiation
Elaboration of Ways for Minimizing the Medical Consequences of Radiation Exposure
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
A.I. Burnazyan Federal Medical and Biophysical Center / Chelyabinsk Branch, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Oziorsk
- VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk\nNPO Mayak, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Oziorsk
Project summaryThe actuality of investigations on minimization of long radiation influence consequences is conditioned by the presence of a great contingent of inpiduals, who were exposed as a result of the professional activity on the nuclear enterprises during years of unfavorable radiation situation or because of radiation accidents. Great part of these persons is at the age or about the age of manifestation of inauspicious on prognosis irradiation consequences, and first of all, a cancer.
Elaboration of ways for solution of this insufficiently known problem on two following directions is the purpose of the project:
1. Early preclinical diagnosis of cancer.
2. Prevention or reduction of inauspicious on prognosis outcomes of long irradiation includes cancer, with the help of pharmaceuticals (pharmaprophylaxis). Indicated purpose provides the implementation of the following tasks:
- elaboration of scientifically based test of cancer growth diagnosis before its clinical manifestation (inpidual cancer prognosis);
- clinical approbation of the inpidual cancer prognosis method for exposed inpiduals from groups of high cancer risk;
- elaboration of the methodology of pharmaprophylaxis of determine and somatic-stochastic consequences of different irradiation influence;
- approbation in clinical practice of the prevention or decrease means of inauspicious on prognosis radiation influence consequences, including tumors.
The instrumental and number of laboratory cancer diagnostic methods, using at the present time in oncology give the information only at the expressed clinical picture. Attempts to use these tumor markers for early finding of cancer were unsuccessful.
In the past, during our experiments on animals we devised and patented the method of cancer diagnostic process long before its clinical manifestation on the basis of cyclical nucleotides ratio (cAMP/ cGMP) changes in cancer carrier's urine. Sensitivity of these methods in pre-clinical stage is from 70% to 100% depending on their type and localization. The same character of tissue reaction for cancer factors and similarity in principal of molecular and cellular mechanisms of malignant transformations for people and animals allow using the test of this method in practice. The approbation of cancer prognosis method for "Mayak" workers with increased permissible level of exposure was started. As follows from the preliminary results of investigation, the percent of inpiduals with stable raised biochemical test in this group is 3 times higher than in control. It conforms to the most frequency of cancer diseases for exposed contingent. It is assumed the clinical approbation of the method of cancer prognosis for “Mayak” PA and VNIITF personnel.
Our investigations on elaboration of ways for minimization or decrease the inauspicious on prognosis consequences of radiation influence are based on the application of immunomoduling preparations. The ability of some immunomodulators to exert the antipromotor influence owing the normalization of common and/or local immunity is the theoretical prerequisite of this elaboration. At the same time, these preparations with immunomodulating and regulation properties, raise the specific resistance of an organism, hi many years studies on two species of animals, the principle possibility of directed prevention or decrease of determine and tumor effects of chronic radiation influence was detected by us. The decrease of cancer growth, immunodeficits, sclerosal and hypo plastic process frequency at the prophylactic use of immunomodulating preparations was detected. Models of chronic action of different type ionizing radiation used in these investigations (external gamma-irradiation, internal incorporated plutonium alpha-irradiation) are approximated on their dose characteristics to conditions of the occupational radiation.
The project provides the clinical approbation of minimization method of professional radiation exposure late consequences with the help of immunomodulating means for "Mayak" PA and RFNC-VNIITF workers. Selected contingents are mainly presented by the inpiduals with considerable exposure levels and with professional diseases. Immunomodulating preparations are applicated for patients of the principal group as repeated courses. Pharmaprophylaxis effectiveness is estimated on dynamic of immunologic and hematological indices, on statistical indices of morbidity and mortality for the period of the investigation in the principal group versus control. In analysis of the morbidity and death causes structure the accent will be made for malignant neoplasms. First results of the application of one of testing preparations among “Mayak” PA veterans were received. The positive dynamic of immunology and hematology indices assisted in the reducing of infection syndrome frequency in the main group for the period of 3 years. At the same time the real less cases of cancer were registered in this group in comparison with the control for the indicated period.
The experience of professional exposure late consequence minimization can be used for other exposed contingents. Elaborated methods will be useful for perfection of treatment- prophylaxis help to inpiduals suffered resulting their work at the nuclear industry enterprises or of staying on contaminated territories.
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