Monitoring of Ozone in Tajikistan
Monitoring of Ozone-Forming Gases in Air and Estimation of the Effect of Ozone on Plant Communities in Different Climatic Zones of Tajik Republic
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Kola Science Center / Polar Geophysical Institute, Russia, Murmansk reg., Murmansk\nInstitute of Chemistry named after V.I.Nikitin, Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- University of California, USA, CA, Davis\nThe University of York, UK, YO, Heslington\nUniversity of Tartu / Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Estonia, Tartu\nUniversity of Helsinki / Plant Biology, Finland, Helsinki\nMichigan Technological University / School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, USA, MI, Houghton
Project summaryThe importance of the investigation of atmospheric pollutants in Tajikistan is first of all based on the critical tension of the ecological situation in this region of Central Asia, along with the geographic and orographic specificities of the Republic. The most of the population inhabits the valleys where also there are the most important industrial enterprises, along with agricultural production. Small yearly rainfall, high temperature, high sun irradiation and dominating of calm and clear weather are characteristic for Tajikistan. The high and stable rate of excretion of pollutants by the main sources and the stable wind conditions create local zones of high danger for plants and increase the probability of intense trans-border transfer of the pollution. At this time, Tajikistan has unique natural climatic conditions characterized by the sequence of high-altitude zones. There are large gradients in temperature, air humidity and precipitation, incident UV and visible radiation, dependent on the altitude of the site. Geographic isolation and the high-altitude zonality have supported the evolution of extremely abundant flora. Tajikistan is one of the centers of the formation of cultural plant species. Over five thousand higher plant species are growing on the area of the republic, including a number of endemic and rare species, forming over 20 different types of plant communities. Agriculture is an important part of the economy in the Republic. Global climatic change and the increasing level of antrpogenic air pollution may cause negative influences on natural ecosystems and agricultural crops, e.g. such as changes in vertical zones of distribution, changes in species composition of natural ecosystems, decrease in agricultural productivity. Systematic information about the status of the biosphere is necessary for prediction of possible negative consequences from the increasing antropogenic impact on the biosphere.
The proposed project is aimed at: creation of a data-base of air ozone concentrations, as well as concentrations of ozone-forming gases in the near-ground air in different climatic zones of Tajik Republic; the estimation of the consequences of ground level ozone concentration increase on plants and plant communities, including crops.
More specifically, the created data-base will allow
· characterization of the ecological situation in this region of Central Asia;
· specification of the most critical ecological zones of Tajik Republic;
· prediction of the possible consequences of the atmospheric pollutants increase on natural plant communities and major agricultural crops;
· estimation of possible trans-border movement of ozone, as the most toxic atmospheric pollutant for plants, to the territories of neighbor states;
· comparison of the changes of regional ozone concentration with changes of its global concentration;
· creation of a data-base of air ozone concentrations, as well as concentrations of ozone-forming gases in the near-ground air in different climatic zones of Tajik Republic
· estimation of ozone flux in troposphere over Tajik Republic.
The solutions of following tasks are necessary for implementation of the project:
· the analysis of time-space change of air ozone concentrations and ozone-forming gases in the near-ground air in different nature-climatic zones of of Tajikistan;
· the analysis of ground level ozone concentration increase on plant communities and crops in different climatic conditions of Tajikistan;
· creation of a data-base of air ozone concentrations and concentrations of ozone-forming gases anthropogenic and biogenic parametrization, the creation of the models describing the photochemical generation of ozone and examine their parametric adaptation for different zones of Tajikistan.
Specification of activities that will be undertaken
1. A mobile station has to be created at the IPPG AS RT for the monitoring of ozone, ozone precursor gases and UV radiation meteorological parameters, including computer hardware and software for data storage and processing.
2. Expeditions will be arranged for observations, using the mobile station, in different weather conditions and in different plant zones of the Tajik Republic.
3. The area of the Tajik Republic will be mapped according to the levels of phytotoxic gases, in order to specify the most vulnerable zones.
4. Design and manufacturing of fumigation chambers with artificially enlarged ozone concentration. The fumigation experiments on agricultural and nature plants communities will be continued in these chambers.
For measurement of concentration О3, NOx, intensity of UV radiation and meteorological parameters the reference equipment disposed on stationary and mobile station will be use. The stationary station will allocate in the experimentally plot of IPPG. The mobile station will be use for carrying out of expeditions in various zones of Republic. The observations will envelop as zones contiguous to large industrial firms, and remote from them on considerable distance, zones of cultivation of agricultural plants and high-mountain zones. For creation of models of photochemical generation of ozone in atmosphere and their parametrizations will be carried out synchronous observations of change of a daily contents of ozone, its predecessors and UV radiation in contrast nature-climatic zones of RT and on the Kola peninsula. The analysis of ozone influence on priority agricultural cultures and high-mountainous plant communities will be carried out in model experiments on an experimental plot of IPPG and high-mountainous station.
· a mobile laboratory for monitoring atmospheric pollutants will be created in IPPG AS RT.
· a database of atmospheric ozone and its precursor pollutants will be created for the different area of Tajik Republic; the data will be available for incorporating into the global ozone database: the most vulnerable zones will be defintd.
· models describing the photochemical generation of ozone from precursor compounds under the influence of UV radiation will be created, and their parametric adaptation will be examined for the range of climatic conditions.
· genotypes of agricultural plants, the most and least sensitive to elevated ozone concentration, will be determined and recommended for agriculture in Tajik Republic.
· possible effects of increased air pollutant levels on natural plant communities and their species composition will be estimated.
The implementation of the given project will allow to receive the operating information about ozone and ozone-firming gases in different zones of Republic, to improve models describing the photochemical generation of ozone in different latitude and climatic conditions, to determine genotypes of agricultural plants, the most and least sensitive to elevated ozone concentration and to recommend its for agriculture. The database can be included in the global database and used in models for analysis of global pollution of environment and long-range predictions of climate change. The intrusion in an agricultural production least sensitive to elevated air pollution crops will promote raising of economics in Republic. The scientists and specialists bound with weapons will be involved in research activity connect with an environmental protection, the young specialists will have an opportunity to increase their qualification, the connection with scientific, working under the problems of environment pollution and its influencing on plants communities will be adjusted. Thus, the implementation of the given project responds the purposes and problems ISTC and it is interesting, both to Tajikistan, and for neighboring states.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.