Hazard Zone for Technologically Produced Pollution
Hazard Zone for Technologically Produced Pollution
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Novozhilov V V
IVTAN (High Temperatures) / High Energy Density Research Center, Russia, Moscow
- State Institute of Technology of Organic Synthesis (GITOS), Russia, Saratov reg., Shikhany
- Sandia National Laboratories, USA, NM, Albuquerque\nUniversity of Michigan, USA, MI, Ann Arbor
Project summaryComputer hazard zone assessment method of possible accidental radioactive, hazardous chemical substances and CW agents pollution in the sensitive technologies (atomic, fuel and chemistry plants) will be developed.
Analysis of the next three specially planned tests will be made:
1. Experiments on the radioactive material explosive dispersion and the radioactive aerosol propagation in the ground atmosphere and their deposition on the land in the case of exploding the special explosives used for forming the aerosol formation (Semipalatinsk's testing ground).
2. Experiments on the strong toxic agents (sarin, soman, phosgene and hydrocyanic acid) pouring out and propagation inside the closed rooms of SITOS Lab. In the emergency situations the local contamination of different surfaces inside the laboratory rooms and of the equipment was used at subsequent spreading of the toxic cloud inside the industrial premises of the building.
3. Large-scale experiments on the ejection of large volumes of natural gas containing a substantial part of sulfur impurities into the atmosphere. The experiments were conducted during the period of 1970-1977 at the Astrakhan' (20% of H2S), Tengiz (30% of H2S) and Orenburg deposits.
The following events will be also analyzed under this project:
1. Chemical reactor explosion of April 6, 1993 at the Siberian integrated chemical plant in Tomsk-7 with the ejection of radioactive materials.
2. Emergency leakage of 94 kg of phosgene at the "Pigment" joint-stock company in Tambov.
3. Emergency ejection of 1 500 kg of chlorine at the titanomagnesium integrated plant, Zaporozhie, November 7, 1995.
4. Fuel-air ejection and an explosion, which took place on June 3, 1989 not far from Ufa.
5. Forty-three catastrophic sudden failures of the main line gas pipes in the territory of the former USSR, which took place in 1990 and 1991.
This analysis will allow formulating the main characteristics for the emergency sources and the initial characteristics of hazardous substances release.
While making the analysis of full-scale measurements it is proposed to organize the computer data bases, make an expert estimation of the observation results, deduce empirical dependencies for the parameters of contaminations in atmosphere upon their physicochemical characteristics and the emergency and experiment conditions.
Modern methods for calculating and forecasting the toxic agent spread inside the closed rooms and in the open air will be analyzed within the frames of this project. New procedures capable to describe a complicated physical situation at the ejection of technological origin with a high degree of adequacy and reliability will be modernized and developed as a result of this.
These procedures will include the following:
- 2-D and 3-D models (of k-e type) taking the turbulent characteristic transfer into account;
- Lagrangian stochastic models having the property of correct accounting for the influence of physical atmosphere state on the contamination spreading;
- hybrid model of "roaming clouds", combining the advantages of Gaussian and Lagrangian models;
- combined procedure for calculating the contamination transfer in the atmosphere and in the closed volumes, the flow fields in which are calculated on the basis of hydrodynamics equation and the environment averaged characteristics obtained in this case are used subsequently in the Lagrangian-stochastic models of contamination spreading.
The developed models will be verified by comparing with the results of mentioned experiments. Comparison of the results, obtained using the developed models, with the results of standard experiments will allow confronting different mathematical models and software in efficiency.
As a result of this project it will be possible to present a sequence of processes of radioactive material explosive dispersion and a mechanism of radioactive substances spreading in the atmosphere. Physical pattern will be created for a strong flow of natural gas; ejected into the atmosphere as a result of a gas pipeline damage or an emergency at an industrial hole and regularities of this process will be revealed. The laws of toxic agent vapor spreading inside the technological rooms will be obtained.
The practical value of this work consists in the fact that the results obtained while fulfilling the work under this project will make additional information available, which is necessary for developing the recommendations on the radiation safety and the work with high-toxic materials and for substantiating the dimensions of sanitary-protective zones for the enterprises, connected with the dangerous technologies, and around the gas pipelines. The developed forecasting models and software may be used for supporting the decision making under the emergency conditions, connected with the ejection of radioactive substances into the atmosphere, gas pipeline breaks or emergencies at the chemically dangerous industrial enterprises.
Potential Role of Foreign Collaborators
At realization of the project HERDC SA "IVTAN" RAS is interested in cooperation to scientific laboratories USA, Europe and Japan.
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