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X-Ray Methods for Nanoelectronics


Development of Approaches in Methods of X-Ray Reflectometry with Application to Process Engineering in Micro and Nanoelectronics

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics
  • MAN-MAT/Engineering Materials/Manufacturing Technology
  • MAN-MPS/Manufacturing, Planning, Processing and Control/Manufacturing Technology
  • MAT-COM/Composites/Materials

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Ryzhova T B

Leading Institute
St Petersburg State University / Institute of Physics, Russia, St Petersburg

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov


  • Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser, Greece, Heraklione\nCNRS / Universite Pierre & Marie Curie / Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - Matiere et Rayonnement, France, Paris

Project summary

In connection with intensive assimilation of nanometer range, in which sizes of structures and semiconducting layers are comparable to the de Broglie electron wavelength in the matter, requirements to the nanostructure process engineering and methods of their quantitative control have been increased. Fluctuations of nanostructure geometric parameters inevitably result in their electron property fluctuations and in a number of cases in complete vanishing of quantum effects. Therefore development of techniques intended for testing thickness, homogeneity, roughness, and uniformity of nanolayers, as well as of a profile of nanostructure doping combined with precision methods of nanolayer synthesis is an urgent problem of science and process engineering. The thickness of material layers in nanoelectronics is so small as units of nanometers, with the surface and interlayer boundary roughness being significantly less than nanometer. Therefore, testing methods are required capable to provide an information about a three-dimensional structure of growing layers.

Nondestructive monitoring of structural, optical, morphological and electrophysical properties is preferable. Development is required of control techniques adapted to a particular process engineering of multi-layer structures, including searching and development of complementary methods allowing the revealing of correlation of electrophysical properties and microstructure of growing or synthesized coatings.

In this connection the project goal, i.e. adaptation of existing and development of new approaches to the x-ray methods ensuring comprehensive analysis of structures as applied to micro and nanoelectronics problems, is of extreme interest both for fundamental research and for industry.

The project goals are as follows:

  1. Development of methods of x-ray reflectometry to test quality of synthesized nanostructures.
  2. Application of x-ray testing methods to refine the process engineering of atomic layer deposition (ALD) that is one of the promising lines in the modern nanoelectronics.

The problems to be solved:
  1. New methods of the nanostructure nondestructive testing basing on analysis of X-ray reflection and scattering will be developed.
  2. X-ray investigation of radiation defects produced in silicon caused by ionic implantation will be carried out.
  3. X-ray analyses and standardization of the substructure control will be carried out to obtain solid continuous homogeneous coatings on large areas by ALD method.
  4. X-ray spectrometric analyses of a structure of surface layers and interfaces between two adjacent materials will be carried out as applied to the synthesis process engineering of highly organized structures based on semiconducting and dielectric layers, using ALD method.

During the project execution there will be developed and manufactured:
  • New approaches to the quantitative control of nanostructures based on analysis of X-ray reflection and scattering, including theory, experimental methods and software for processing and analysis of experimental data.
  • New approaches to the determining of a profile of the crystal amorphisation caused by ionic doping.
  • Improved approaches to standardization of solid-state substructures will be developed to obtain continuous homogeneous coatings on large areas including development of theory, improved experimental techniques and software for experimental data processing and analysis.
  • Advanced process engineering of semiconducting II-VI compounds and high electric permittivity hyperfine lossy dielectrics synthesis on appropriate substrates including (1) selection of optimal reactants and optimal temperature modes, (2) experimental techniques of multilayer composite film parameters measuring, (3) software for optimization of synthesis processes and for experimental data processing and analysis.
  • Tested samples of high dielectric permittivity (high-K) hyperfine lossy dielectrics on silicon for chips with the topological sizes less than 0.13 μm.

The project participants are experts in x-ray methods of material testing and modern nanoelectronic process engineering. They have published more than 200 articles in these areas.

The project participants from VNIIEF have participated in nuclear weapon testing and assessment.