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Composite Materials with Nano-Scale Reinforcements


Composite Materials with Nano-Scale Reinforcements

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-COM/Composites/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
MISIS (Steel and Alloys), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • AO Kompozit, Russia, Moscow reg., Korolev\nAll-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials named after A. Bochvar, Russia, Moscow\nAll-Russian Institute of Light Alloys, Russia, Moscow


  • Arizona State University / Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, USA, AZ, Tempe\nTU Delft, The Netherlands, Delft\nCranfield University / School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, UK, Beds, Cranfield\nVictorReinz, Dana Corp., USA, Lisle\nLulea University of Technology, Sweden, Lulea\nUniversity of New Orleans, USA, LA, New Orleans\nUniversity of Toledo / Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, USA, OH, Toledo

Project summary

Composite materials of metallic matrix with reinforcement particles are very promising technological materials for broad application. Modern industry has demand in metal-matrix composites with nano-size reinforcement particles. The main problem of MMC production is a poor wetability (sometimes even unwetability) of reinforcement particles with melt in casting methods or low adhesion and weak strength of interface for powder metallurgy method. The project is aimed at elaborating method of MMC production based on the following:

1. Method of mechanical alloying allows to obtain high-strength bonds in interface.

2. Nano-state material with high surface energy insures good wetability in interface and as a result high strength in interface.

The method of mechanical alloying is one of the modern and effective methods for processing composite materials with reinforcement ceramic particles. MMC is a mixture of powder components treated in high-energy mills. The initial powder mixture consists of one or more viscous metal components and one or more brittle but hard ceramic particles. The fraction of reinforcement ceramic particles in a mixture varies from some units till some dozens of volume percent fractions. Mechanical alloying causes some structural transformations and results in forming homogenous granules. The granule is a matrix with regular placed ceramic particles. The high density of lattice defects is a specific property of the matrix that may be attributed to high shift (or shear) deformation in the contact points of particles and milling parts.

The second method, i.e. application of nano-size materials has sprung up in the last years. The surface energy increases drastically whereas the size of particles is less than 100 nanom. Particle to particle sticking or adhesion of particles to other surfaces result in reducing surface energy and these processes take place in the very beginning. The project includes examining process of mixture to insure high-quality composite material with nano-size reinforcement particles. The process is effective when the particles of matrix-material is less than particles of reinforcement material. At least three methods of production of nano-powders will be examined. Properties of nano-powders has influence on the method of mixture.

The main problem for the both methods is production consolidated samples from the granules of matrix component with reinforcement particles. Dynamic methods of consolidation such as explosion method or magnetic and impulse forming is a way of resolution. The both methods will be investigated in the project as the methods themselves or in combination with traditional methods of consolidation.

The methods of MMC production will be examined using the following MMC compositions:

– Al-matrix with SiC reinforcement particles;

– Cu-matrix with SiC reinforcement particles;
– Cu-matrix with nano-diamond powders
– Steel-matrix with TiC reinforcement particles.

Composition Al-matrix and SiC-particles may be interested for electronic industry and automobile industry (substitution of cast iron parts, production of parts for engine etc.).

The second and third compositions on the basis of Cu-matrix may be applied in electrical industry (combination of high wear resistance and good electrical conductivity).

The last type of material (steel-matrix and TiC-particles) has a wide application. In particular, parts for pumps of deep deposits for transportation of raw petroleum. The parts should combine high strength, high corrosion and wear resistance properties. Replacement is rather costly operation.

The material will be investigated with high-tech equipment and new methods (electron microscopy (both scanning and transmissing ones), oje-microscopy, X-ray analysis).

The project meets all requirements of ISTC and has peaceable application.

The previous experience of the executors in the area of MMC production insures the project would be completed on the high scientific level.