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Laser biotechnological cultivation system

#2335


The creation of a laser system for cultivation of microbiological objects aimed at the development of new effective industrial biotechnologies

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-RAD/Radiobiology/Biotechnology
  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
09.10.2001

Leading Institute
NPO Astrophysica, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Research Institute for Protein Biosynthesis Investigation, Russia, Moscow\nMoscow State University, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Hans-Knoll-Institute for Natural Drugs Research, Germany, Jena\nForschungszentrum fur Medizintechnik und Biotechnologie e.V., Germany, Bad Langensalza\nUniversity of Wyoming / Department of Molecular Biology, USA, WY, Laramie\nBowling Green State University / Department of Chemistry, USA, OH, Bowling Green\nInstitut National Polytechniques de Lorraine / Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques de Nancy, France, Nancy

Project summary

The aim of the present project is to develop a laser-fermenter for a) cultivation of microbiological objects (bacteria, yeast, microalga, fungi) with physiological activity of starting cultures increased by several degrees, and on their basis b) obtaining biosynthetic products of fodder, food and medical purposes: enzymes, biologically active additives, pigments and other practically useful substances.
Current interest in increasing the effectiveness of industrial biotechnology
Laser technologies and lasers as the tool of influence and study are widespread in material knowledge, chemistry, and medicine. Scientists and engineers are becoming increasingly interested in the potential of modern lasers and their use in biology, agriculture, and the food industry.
Laser techniques have also found practical application in biotechnology, one of the most dynamically developing fields of activity,. However up to now this application was limited mainly by diagnostic systems. A number of research works by a principle "short-term irradiation of object - answer-back reaction" was conducted, in which the reaction of microorganisms to laser radiation was investigated and the presence of various biological reactions, a potential subject for photoregulation, was shown for a wide range of microorganisms, including halobacteria, microalga, yeast and fungi. The possible directed influence of laser radiation on the intracellular processes and biosynthesis regulation is due to the selective influence of monochromatic light on the photosensitive structures and photoreceptors (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll of phototrophs) in microbiological objects and intracellular processes in microorganisms with the participation of chromophore structures and exited particles (radicals, peroxides). An advantage of laser radiation is the chance to create high light brightness in a narrow range of wavelengths, not achievable with usual noncoherent light sources. Such properties allow us to speak of the possible realization of highly effective biotechnologies for reception of microbial cultures with high biological activity and increased extra- and intracellular contents of valuable biological products. At the same time the practical use of monochromatic light in biotechnological processes is limited by the absence of information precisely determining mechanisms of light action, and effective wavelengths and irradiation modes which take account of the specificity of modern methods of controlled cultivation and the reception of biosynthetic products in laboratory and industrial conditions.

In this connection it seems reasonable to create a specialized laboratory-based semi-industrial biotechnological system including a photobioreactor, with the laser equipment for improvement of biotechnological processes and diagnostics of light-induced changes.

Tasks
The following tasks are to be solved to achieve the project aims:
1. Development and creation of lasers with changing irradiation wavelength from visible to a near infra-red range and possible frequency modulations for irradiation of microorganisms during their cultivation in laboratory, and the elaboration and creation of a photobioreactor.
2. Development and creation of an optical system for delivery of laser radiation to a microbiological object in conditions of surface and submerged cultivation.
3. Development and creation of a laboratory sample of a laser-fermenter to investigate biological processes under different modes of radiation.
4. Development of a system for express analysis of the physiological condition of microbiological objects during cultivation in a photobioreactor, on the basis of existing methods of control and operation of fermentative processes, including those for a laser-fermenter.
5. Development and performance of a study on spectral, physico-chemical, morphological, physiology-biochemical and genetic methods of analysis of laser-induced changes in biological objects.

6. The study of laser-induced changes (spectral, physico-chemical, morphological, physiology-biochemical, genetic) in microorganisms under the different radiation and fermentation modes, and development of recommendations for the creation of new industrial biotechnologies.
Technical-scientific and commercial value of the project

The development of a laser biotechnological cultivation system will be based on available experience of author's team, including development of laser equipment to customer requirements (SSC SUE “SPA Astrophysica”), realization of investigations in photochemistry and photobiology (MSU), controlled cultivation of microorganisms and processes of biological purification (SRI "GosNIIsintezbelok").


Scientific interest will submit data on the most effective parameters of irradiation, possible mechanisms of photoreception and photoinduction, the opportunities for change of the spectral characteristics of primary photoreceptors (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll etc.), an increase in intracellular content of biologically and practically important components (proteins - cytochromes, pigments etc.), and an increase in photosynthesis efficiency. The project’s practical results will involve the development of new effective biotechnologies for agricultural, food and medical use, with the assumed further adoption of the most prospective technologies in industry.


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