Nanoparticles in Supercritical Fluids
Synthesis, Formation and Modification of (In)organic Nanoparticles in Supercritical Fluids. Fundamentals and Applications
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Latynin K V
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Akademgorodok
- University of Birmingham / School of Engineering, UK, Birmingham\nPukyong National University, Korea, Busan\nUniversity of Maribor, Slovenia, Maribor\nSogang University / Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea, Seoul
Project summaryNanoparticles and nanostructural materials are of particular interest in terms of their application in sensors and electronic devices, catalysis, pharmaceutical industry, in the production of membranes and coatings. Such nanostructures and materials show unusual properties that differ from the properties of their bulky analogs. Of the known and promising methods of nanoparticles synthesis, formation and modification, the methods using supercritical fluids (SCF) stand out now.
These methods provide great opportunities for synthesis and formation of nanoparticles and nanomaterials, for purposeful control over the properties of materials, coatings and structures being formed. This makes necessary to perform fundamental and applied studies aimed at further investigation of the entire set of phenomena in question and at practical implementation of the developed methods and technologies.
The Project is aimed at solving the integrated problems of (in)organic and physical chemistry including synthesis and modification of highly dispersed (in)organic nanoparticles with the use of supercritical fluids, in particular water; formation of chemically active films; property evaluation of nanoparticles depending on the reaction conditions, co-solvents introduced and micronization technique; studying the agglomeration effects and reactivity of supercritical fluids in new syntheses of (in)organic materials using experimental and theoretical methods. The proposed studies will produce new knowledge in this field, which will be used to develop methods and technologies for synthesis, formation and deposition of nanoparticles of various (in)organic and polymeric materials and chemically active films.
Laboratory experimental studies, mathematical modeling and calculations will be used as main instruments to implement the Project tasks.
Research program of the Project includes the following directions:
Synthesis and property evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles. Synthesis and precipitation of nano-size particles of inorganic materials (Ru, Pt or Pd, and their composites RuPt and RuPd) to be used in the production of novel heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic surfaces for microreactor processes, microelectrodes, and metal-polymeric materials. Among special goals of the Project are experimental studies on the single-step synthesis of LiFePO4 metal phosphate nanoparticles and similar compounds in supercritical water in batch and flow reactors. The experimental studies will be aimed at synthesizing the particles of 10-100 nm size with a narrow distribution.
Nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes microencapsulation. Development of an efficient method for encapsulation of nanopowders (nanotubes, nanodiamonds, metal nanoparticles, luminescent solids, pigments, polymers, etc.) into diphilic polymer coating with the use of supercritical solvents aimed at improving their ability to dispersion in water, other liquids and polymeric matrices for synthesis of various-purpose nanocomposite materials.
Preparation of polymer films for chemical sensing application. The deposition of chemically active polymeric materials (CSM) from supercritical solvent is suggested to obtain surfaces with special properties, e.g., sensing elements – miniature chemical sensors using the RESS technique. To study the effect of selected polymeric material, nano-size and morphology of deposited particles on the adsorption of chosen vapors and resolution of sensors. The combination of microelectronics and chemically active materials (CSM) produced with the use of nanotechnologies is a highly promising approach.
Statistical, thermodynamic and mathematical modeling of solid nanoparticles formation and deposition from supercritical solvent. Main problems of the Project include development of new approaches and models for calculation of the reaction conditions providing synthesis of nanoparticles with desired properties, and elaboration of thermodynamic models adequately describing the formation of a solid phase of different physical nature. Thermodynamic calculation of the state of reaction mixture will localize the critical points of a multicomponent mixture and thus determine the region of optimal parameters for the mixture in supercritical conditions that precede the particles formation.
The Project aims also to create the original hydrodynamic models describing the processes of supercritical mixture extension, formation of the solid phase particles, and their agglomeration. Particular attention is paid to the development of mathematical models that can explain and quantitatively describe the effect of the solvent pressure (density) on the apparent rates of nanoparticle formation.
Statistical modeling based on the Monte-Carlo methods will allow us to study structural rearrangements of nanoparticles on clean surfaces accompanied by the formation of nanocluster systems, and the effect of porous substrate structure on the formation of nanoparticle layers over these substrates.
Treatment and modification of nanoparticle surface of synthetic diamonds. To remove carbon compounds from the crystal surface of synthetic diamonds, they will be treated in supercritical solvents, in particular water, without addition of strong acids. Modern physical methods will be used to study the surface of treated crystals and their morphology.
The proposed studies, being a continuation of the work performed by the team, will be a pioneering work on the world scale.
The Project participants have rich experience in applied research and successful collaboration with other institutions in many countries of the world. They have studied the reactivity of some supercritical fluids in numerous chemical reactions and the pressure effects on chemical reaction rate, developed programs and algorithms for calculating the gas-liquid phase diagrams. The team has created and is operating now the first Russian stationary SCWO plant intended for the oxidation of toxic and power organic compounds.
The Project entirely complies with the ISTC aims and goals; it is aimed at solving national and international R&D problems and facilitates international integration of scientists and specialists in the field. The role of foreign collaborators in implementation of the proposed Project is of high importance, first, as experts, and second, as partners having experience and knowledge in the field necessary for efficient accomplishment of the Project tasks. The Project collaborators have the opportunity to participate in joint research work and periodically monitor progress of the work.
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