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Monitoring Rabies of the People and Animals

#KR-1389


Monitoring Epizootic Conditions and Prevention of Occurrence Rabies of the People and Animals

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
  • AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
27.01.2006

Completion date
15.11.2007

Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz Research Institute of Livestock, Veterinary and Pastures, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Supporting institutes

  • Osh Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Kyrgyzstan, Osh\nOpen Joint Stock Company Altyn-Tamyr, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek\nRepublican Center of Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • Center of Expertise for Rabies CFIA/ACIA, Canada, ON, Ottawa\nPurdue University / School of Veterinary Medicine, USA, IN, West Lafayette

Project summary

Sustainable development of animal husbandry is impossible without highly organized organization of veterinary treatment, overall intensification of scientific researches targeted to the increase and welfare of poultry and cattle head, production of primary livestock products and raw material of animal origin of high quality, improvement of epizootic situation and effective veterinary protection against extremely dangerous diseases.

Nowadays animal husbandry production is mostly provided by small, cooperative and inpidual farms. It requires development of new and flexible methods to control veterinary and sanitary state of farms to provide the welfare against infectious diseases.

Current events caused by infectious diseases occurring in various parts of the world evidence necessity in conduct of epizootic researches all over the world. Microorganisms are the most numerous and widespread form of life on the Earth easily adapting to deleterious environment. Majority of microorganisms are important and considerably influence human and animal lives. However, some microorganisms are pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases.

Scientific and technical progress ensures frequent discover of new viruses and bacteria causing acute, chronic and latent infections especially during the last decades even these microorganisms had no etiological impact 20-30 years ago. The new scientific discovery include such extremely dangerous viruses for humanity and animal as AIDS, viral encephalitis, atypical pneumonia, ebola, Viena, Mady and spreky and spongiform encephalopathy etc., seriously effecting social and economic areas all over the world. The situation is aggravated by frequently emerging extremely contagious and drug resistant mutated strains of infectious diseases such as leucosis, leptospirosis, hydrophobia/rabies, influenza, viral hepatitis, foot-and-mouth disease etc.

Despite the efforts made by the Kyrgyz veterinary services on reduction of morbidity rate and elimination of specific animal infections, the risk for emergence of extremely dangerous diseases both for humanity and animal still does exist. Animal rabies is one of them.

Assessment of all disease consequences for humanity and animal health could not be completed due to the lack of sufficient information about sickness rate in different parts of world. Annual death rate of rabid animals is equal to 55,000. Annual amount of people suffering from contacts with the rabid animal and receiving post expositional treatment is about 10 mln. Developing countries spend about 560 mln. USD for prevention of post exposition influence.

In most cases (30-60 %) bitten by rabid dogs are children under 15 years old. Many of them are usually don’t get corresponding treatment as they simply do not inform their parents or medical officers about the bite cases. Therefore following activities are envisaged to be undertaken to reduce the infantile mortality: (i) immediate and proper management of wounds, (ii) provision of modern vaccines based on cell cultures and pre-expositional vaccination to the vulnerable groups of people including children living in high endemic dogs’ rabies areas, and (iii) assistance in deliver of effective and efficient post expositional treatment. Pre-expositional vaccination for prevention from hydrophobia/rabies is mainly conducted in the high risk regions. It is wide spread and successfully implemented in the developed countries. It is also necessary to vaccinate children living in the high endemic dogs’ rabies areas. It is expected to increase expenditures for prevention activities if the hydrophobia/rabies is not liquidated.

Animal rabies exists in all administrative districts and climate areas in Kyrgyzstan. It is resulted by landscape and climate features particularly mountainous areas inhabited by wild animals, which are the main source for rabies virus.

The epidemiological situation on rabies in the Kyrgyz Republic is unfavorable. Annual number of registered rabid is 1-14 cases. Permanent dynamics on rabies is of a cyclic nature. There were registered 109 events during the period of 1989-2004. Most of them i.e., 65 (60) percents have not applied for medical care, which testifies no awareness of population about importance of the post expositional treatment. Children under 14 years old composes about 40 percents of the overall infected. Annual dynamics is characterized by high risk of infection during spring and summer periods.

For many years 90 percents of rabies mainly occur in the southern part of Kyrgyzstan. This information requires conduct of detailed research to define the reasons of such a spotty distribution.

Every year 10 -12 k. of injured people seek for an anti rabies medical care e.g., in 2004 the total number of injured seeking medical care people totaled to 10,079 people, including 7973 people bitten by dogs, 112 of them were rabid dogs; 237 scratched by cats, 5 of them were rabid cats; 113, 77 infected from rabid cattle; 23,2 of them were rabid small cattle; 166 by other domestic animals; 20 by wolfs; 5 by foxes; and 1542 by rats.

Therefore, the proposed project is mainly focused on conduct of research on distribution and determination of sources in unexplored wilderness, and comparative analysis of hydrophobia/rabies virus discharge. It is also necessary to define the changes in a genome of pathogen.

Thereupon the main objectives of envisaged activities are:

  1. study epizootic situation on hydrophobia/rabies in the Kyrgyz Republic;
  2. study seasonality of disease based on the landscape and climate peculiarities in the region;
  3. define animal immune status in the frontier and stationery unfavorable regions;
  4. ascertain the role of wild animals taken from different parts of the country in a rabies distribution;
  5. develop a table of epizootic map on distribution of hydrophobia/rabies;
  6. conduct immune monitor of hydrophobia/rabies using molecular-biological methods of diagnostics.

Optimization of conditions for preparation of test to conduct the polymer and chain reaction (whole blood, blood serum etc.).

The Project Proposal has been prepared by joint efforts of several institutions, including (i) the Institute of Livestock, Veterinary and Pastures (KRILVP) under the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Processing Industries of the Kyrgyz Republic in cooperation with (ii) Biocombinat “Altyn Tamyr”, (iii) Osh Oblast Veterinary Laboratory (south region of the Republic, having the highest rate of rabies morbidity), and medical specialists from the (iv) Republican Center of Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Diseases. Integration of these institutions is targeted for the solution of existing problems in the Republic by detailed survey of the current situation and development of comprehensive system of activities against the rabies.

It is very effective and efficient to unite scientists, physicians and veterinary specialists to solve a common problem of zoogenous infection such as rabies. Coordination of the Republican Center and the South Region will help to conduct researches in all regions of the republic, which is the most important corner stone.

For the successful project implementation it is also required to have a technical and financial support of ISTC financial institutions.


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