Oil-Admixture Pollution of the Black Sea
Models of Flow, Wave and Oil-Admixture Propagation in Hedged Sea Basin Loaded by Oil Transport (Setting as Example the Black Sea)
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment
- PHY-NGD/Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics/Physics
3 Approved without Funding
Georgian Technical University, Georgia, Tbilisi
- Poti Engineering and Economical Institute, Georgia, Poti
- Louisiana State University / Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, USA, LA, Baton Rouge\nUniversity of Rhode Island / College of Engineering, USA, RI, Kingston\nUniversity of Iowa / Department of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, USA, IA, Iowa City\nUniversity of Brighton / School of the Environment, UK, Brighton\nSaitama University / Department of Environmental Science & Human Engineering, Japan, Saitama\nOld Dominion University / Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering / Coastal Engineering Centre, USA, VA, Norfolk\nUniversity of Mississippi / National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, USA, MS, University\nIowa State University / College of Engineering, USA, IA, Ames
Project summaryThe formation of the Europe-Asia Transport Corridor has stimulated and intensified the growth of oil traffic from east to west through the Black Sea coast of Georgia. Hence, the occurrence probability of post-accident oil pollution in the Black Sea basin may increase, resulting in significant ecological and economic losses.
Unlike in the open seas or oceans, the post-accident oil pollutants in the closed sea basins can rapidly cover the coastal line, while the process of their disintegration and self-purification takes place rather slowly due to the absence of linking and exchange between the closed sea water and the large ocean currents. Moreover, the finite-difference models with large step and long-wave approximations cannot be applied to the closed seas, which are usually applicable to the calculation of currents and waves at open seas.
The main goal of the proposed project is to develop mathematical models of currents, waves, occurrence probability of oil pollution in the water area and along coastal line, considering geophysical characteristics of closed seas and sea basins. The models will be applied to the Black Sea simulations and analyses.
The scientific novelty of the project is mainly revealed in the following:
In the computational solution to three-dimensional nonlinear hydromechanical equations of currents in the sea water area used will be the methods of finite and boundary elements with split of those equations by physical processes and parameters. Such approach unlike the finite-difference models with large step for open seas will allow most explicitly the impact of the shelf relief on the transport of oil admixtures by sea currents.
There will be reviewed various problems of the tree-dimensional wave and stream hydromechanics of the near-shore and near-mouth part of the sea. The majority of those problems either has not been solved at all, or has been so much mathematized that are still inconvenient for the practical applications.
Based upon the monitoring and analysis of the extended statistic data we will provide the assessment of the probability of occurrence of the emergency oil spillage in the eastern water basin and near-shore part of the Black Sea.
The distinctive feature of all proposed models will be their availability for design engineers and the adequate accuracy in prognostic estimations.
The project will be carried out in three phases.
The first phase of this project involves the monitoring for establishment of the pollution background, coefficients of vertical and horizontal diffusions and other physicochemical characteristics of the eastern part of the Black Sea water area. It will also involve collection and creation of database on the international statistics of shipwreck and main pipeline failures, in-bed and shore topography, wind and wave, river inflow hydrology, and estimated pipeline routes and infrastructure along the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
The second phase of the project implementation includes the development of the mathematical models for velocity fields of currents, wave and stream-line motions in the closed seas. New computational and analytical solutions will be obtained for the real initial and boundary conditions (namely, those at the Black Sea basin).
The third phase provides simulations of formation and transport of post-accident oil admixtures at the sea water and in the near-shore area. The equations of unsteady-state turbulent diffusion of oil-admixtures will be solved using computational, analytical and probability methods. The Black Sea will be used as an example to demonstrate the results of those solutions, including the time of migration, change in concentration and area of entrainment by oil admixtures in the water and costal areas.
The results obtained at the end of the project can be applied to the forecast of pollution from oil products in large lakes and reservoirs.
The project will employ the state-of-the-art scientific practices and achievements in the given field.
The project will have some commercial values as well, because implementation of the project will promote the pre-planning of engineering activities in prevention and liquidation of post-accident oil pollutions at the Black Sea basin.
The principal part of the work will be carried out by the high-skilled specialists from different cities of Georgia – Tbilisi and Poti (at the Black Sea coast) who have the working experience in the weapon technology.
Over past years the authors of this proposal published many papers and treatises in the dynamic oceanography, hydromechanics of density and convective streams, wave hydromechanics, near-shore hydro-engineering etc. The works of the principal investigators of this project were submitted to many congresses of the International Association of Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and conferences devoted to oceanology issues.