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Laser Refractometry for Biomedical Diagnostics

#2966


Application of a New Method of Laser Refractometry for Determining the Stimulating Action Mechanisms of Optical Therapy, for Disease Diagnostics and Treatment Efficiency Evaluating of Pneumonia and Helminthosis

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
  • MED-OTH/Other/Medicine
  • INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
23.12.2003

Leading Institute
MIFI, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow\nMoscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Russia, Moscow\nMinistry of Health / The First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M.Sechenov, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • International Laser Center, Slovakia, Bratislava\nHumboldt Universität / Charité Universitätsklinikum / Klinik fur Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Germany, Berlin\nUniversity of Palermo, Italy, Palermo\nUniversite de Franche-Comte / Laboratoire d’Optique P.M. Duffieux, France, Besancon

Project summary

The planned work is aimed at the development and application of laser refracfometry in biomedical diagnostics. The solution of the Project’s tasks is based on the use of the Intracavity Laser Refractometry in Reflection (ILRR) method, developed in MEPhI and probated in practice during the last years. The major distinctive feature of the method is the opportunity to research media with essential absorption and scattering. The measurement characteristics, achieved by the ILRR method (sensitivity, rapidity and dynamic range), belong in their aggregate to the best results in optical refractometry. The ILRR method possesses unique opportunities for studying fine phenomena at tissue, cell, and molecular levels. With its help it was shown, that the optical refractive index of biological liquids can serve as an objective parameter for the diagnostics of living organism processes. In the frames of the project it is expected to apply the existing and being yet developed versions of the ILRR method to biomedical researches, as well as to develop laser refractometers most acceptable for a subsequent serial production and use in practice. Biomedical studies are planned in three directions. The first one is linked with the mechanism clarification of low intensity laser therapy (LILT). Despite the wide spread of LILT in clinics of many countries and the excellent results in treating a number of diseases, the energy and spectrum characteristics of the radiation, as well as irradiation doses, often come out unjustified, hence the treatment techniques – imperfect. That is caused by the ignorance of the mechanisms of the laser radiation’s stimulating action. The second direction is bound with the development of efficient diagnostic and treatment methods for pneumonia that becomes especially important because of new heavy forms of that disease. New vaccines do not solve this problem completely due to the intense mutation of viruses and bacteria. Therefore the elaboration of new medical approaches activating first of all the immunity functions of the organism becomes highly topical. In the frames of the third direction the researches on the determination of new antihelminth drugs efficiency will be conducted. Helminthosis defines the health state of the Earth’s population in a considerable degree. The existing drugs however do not ensure a 100% recovery and often cause undesirable side effects.

In limits of the project a complex of theoretical and experimental researches of two- and three-frequency lasers with broken cavity generating fields with parallel and orthogonal polarizations will be fulfilled. The circuit schematics, microprocessor systems, and mechanical designs for laser refractometry will be elaborated. That will result in finding the optimal laser parameters for ILRR, in designing up-to-date soft/hard-ware facilities for registering, processing and displaying data, in creating working models of laser refractometers in visible and infrared spectra. The application of the ILRR method in biomedical researches will allow to ascertain the mechanisms of low-intensity laser therapy at the molecular and cell levels. Objective data on optimal characteristics and stimulating doses of irradiation will be obtained. That will allow to solve the key problem of LILT and exclude mistakes in the applied treatment techniques. The laboratory and clinic researches in the field of pulmonology should result in the elaboration of new techniques of pneumonia treatment and optical diagnostics. The treatment techniques stimulating the immunity functions of organism will be based on the separate and combined actions of LILT, chemotherapy, and inhalation. With the use of ILRR the efficiency of new antihelminth drugs will be determined with the trichocephaliasis and trichinosis models on the experimental animals. The necessity of profound experiments in that direction is caused by the insufficient efficiency of the existing antihelminth drugs and by the high occurrence of parasitic diseases throughout the world.

The planned works have a complex character, since they involve not only theoretical analysis, physical experiment, and biomedical research, but also the design of a new device adapted to practical application. Along with biomedical applications the ILRR method is promising for the study of various phenomena at the interfaces of media at solving the problems of chemical kinetics, surface physics, ecology, liquid crystal physics etc. In some applications the ILRR method has no alternatives.

The objective of the project fully comply with the humane tasks of ISTC, since they allow to use the accumulated experience and modern developments for solving the problem of diagnostics and treatment of serious diseases, having both national and international significance. The fulfillment of the given project will allow to reorient the scientists and specialists having dealt with weapons towards the solution of peaceful tasks and to extend their integration into the international scientific community.

The project will be participated by the well-known Russian scientists and specialists in the field of physics, electronics, software, biology, medicine and instrumentation. The work will engage 29 persons, including 7 doctors of science and 8 PhDs from 4 leading state institutions. Within the scope of the given project 7 specific tasks are to be solved. The duration of the project is 30 months at the project effort being 6739 person-days, out of which 4814 ones (71.3%) pertain to weapon specialists.

The role of foreign collaborators will consist in information exchange, responds on the results obtained, objective-oriented training and exchange of specialists, conduction of joint meetings, arrangement and participation in international conferences. Joint works with collaborators in the sphere of using ILRR for biomedical diagnostics are already going on and will extend in the course of carrying out the project.

In the theoretical, experimental, and application parts of the project it is planned to use widely the original scientific and engineering approaches and techniques, developed by the project participants during the last years. The basis for a successful completion of the planned work program is provided by a considerable backlog obtained by the project participants during their works on weapon themes connected with laser studies, soft/hard-ware developments and ILRR method probation.


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