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Waste utilization for gaining new composite materials

#A-2246


Environmental protection through anthropogenic waste utilization for gaining new composite materials

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-COM/Composites/Materials
  • MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
29.01.2016

Leading Institute
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Armenia, Yerevan

Supporting institutes

  • Institute of Engineering and Resource Saving, Kazakstan, Uralsk

Collaborators

  • Research Centre for the Culture and Environment, Greece, Athens\nUniversity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, Modena\nNational Research Council Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, Italy, Faenza\nGeorgia Institute of Technology, USA, GA, Atlanta\nClemson University, USA, SC, Clemson\nEduardo Torroja Institute for Costruction Sciences (IETcc-CSIC, Spain, Madrid

Project summary

The Project aim: The project aims at creation of new compounds of composite materials of different use, by utilizing anthropogenic waste and raising the ecological safety.
The proposed Project effect on progress in the present field: The implementation of this project will ensure new scientific data, elaboration of timely methods and technologies for creation of new materials. It will also address important problems in anthropogenic waste utilization, improvement of environmental situation in the regions, as well as will allow considerably cutting down the cost of synthetic materials and the expenses for material and energy resources.
Glass-ceramic materials gained through planar crystallization of glasses of fit composition, can be one of the prospective materials that meet the requirements for functional and protective thermo-insulation materials. Our initial researches with utilization of anthropogenic waste as raw material show promising results. The possibility of variation of the glass-ceramics’ characteristics through structural transformations via thermal treatment, type of used catalyst (or not using it at all), allows creating glass-ceramics with high physical-mechanical characteristics. Researching rock waste products, we have found that the characteristics of chemical composition of basalt with porphyritic impurities meet the requirements of utilization of single-component charge for gaining glass-ceramics (with no mineralizers and crystallization catalysts added).
Utilization of silica containing rock as rаw material for color art glass and utility glassware production, currently is gaining particular popularity due to its affordability, chemical activity and composition. The waste of silica containing rock (perlites and tuffs that allow excluding such scarce components like soda and potash) can be successfully utilized for this purpose. The set of characteristics for color art glass and utility glassware is gained mainly by using sodium-calcium-silicate glasses (weight %; SiO2-62-75; Al2O3-2-10; CaO-6-12; MgO-1- 4; Na2O-12-16; K2O-1-3). The scientific research programs implemented lately in IGIC (Institute for General and Inorganic Chemistry) aiming at development of technology for producing color art glass and utility glassware using ionic, molecular and colloidal coloring agents based on local rаw material (perlite, limestone, dolomite), revealed the technical feasibility and economic expediency of such technology.
Besides this, our preliminary researches showed that with a scientific approach to the rаw material choice for production of mineral fiber, it is possible to reduce the molding temperature for fiber (by almost 200оC), which will also promote the increase of life-time of fiber forming unit and raise of acid and alkali resistance characteristics. This will allow broadening the range of application of mineral fiber based products and cutting costs for material and energy resources.
We have conducted preliminary researches in the area of developing new thermo-insulation materials based on waste products and technologies that allow cutting down the utilization of energy resources, thus contributing to environmental safety. Correct and optimal choice of raw material components and technological schemes will allow creating materials and constructions for construction, cryogenic engineering, nuclear energy and other industries, where materials with low dielectric characteristics are needed.
There is a big group of rocks, the production process of which leaves huge amount of slime, which is dumped into dump pits. This slime, after undergoing a certain complex processing, can be effectively utilized as mineral pigment with expansion of its color palette. The initial research results show that this group of rock possesses the necessary set of art, technological, physical-chemical characteristics – color fastness and atmosphere-resistance.
The initial research results show, that the production of the suggested new composite materials will ensure the solution of the following problems:
- The problem of decreasing the utilization of material resources, due to complex utilization of the rаw material;
- The problem of minimizing the negative environmental impact.
- The problem of cutting down energy resources consumption by creating energy saving technologies;
We have all the bases to insist that the suggested methods of gaining anthropogenic waste based composite materials through energy saving technologies are economically more expedient, compared to the existing methods of analogic materials’ production: the initial calculations show that the cost will be cut down at least by 60%.
The expectations and their application:The proposed project is in the area of new materials and technologies development as well as in the area of enhanced environmental safety. The implementation of this project will ensure new scientific results, development of actual scientific energy saving technologies, will solve important conversion problems, allow considerably cutting the cost of synthetic materials and most importantly it will reduce the negative impact on the environment.
The implementation of the current project will work towards a number of goals:
· Development of technologies for glass-ceramic ware production for various utilization purposes,
· Development of technologies for art glass, stained glass and container glass production,
· Development of energy saving technologies for production of mineral fiber with improved physical-chemical characteristics,
· Development of energy saving technologies for production of new thermo-insulation materials and fundamentally new technological schemes for gaining those,
· Development of technologies for gaining highly dispersive pigments for utilization in construction and art,
Taking into account the considerably low price of the gained materials, we count on finding interested organizations.


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