Malaria Mosquitoes of Tajikistan
Complex Study of Malaria Mosquitoes and Their Natural Enemies, Elaboration of Measures on Regulation of Number of Mosquitoes in Southern Regions of Tajikistan
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Institute of Zoology and Parasitology named after E.N.Pavlovsky, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- SWORDE Teppa / Representative Office, Tajikistan, Khatlon
Project summaryFor recent years the problem of struggle against bloodsucking mosquitoes – carriers of infectious diseases has become much sharper in Tajikistan. One of the main causes of this problem is change of ecological conditions under influence of anthropogenic factors. Nowadays in southern areas of Tajikistan there is an increase of malaria sickness. In 1997 there were enregistered 29794 cases of malaria sickness. The problem of malaria sickness has got a constant epidemiological and progressing character.
The main malaria carriers are mosquitoеs. In Tajikistan bloodsucking mosquitoes of Culicidae family are represented by 28 species that belong to 6 genera. The most widely spread and numerous are species of Culex and Anopheles genera. Culex are the main spreaders of infectious diseases of men and animals. Mosquitoes of Anopheles genus are carriers of malaria plasmodia. For the recent time there is an increase of bloodsucking mosquitoes including those of Anopheles genus that leads to local outbreaks of malaria. Some species of Aedes and Culex genera have Tyaguin, Sindbys and Issykul viruses. Undoubtedly they are also carriers of microfilaria, i.e. pathogen of elephantiasis.
The number of mosquitoes and natural habitat of their spreading depend on climatic conditions, geographic characteristics and the effect of anthropogenic factors.
Natural enemies of mosquitoes that eat their larvae, chrysalides and mosquitoes themselves can significantly decrease their number and lead their population to safe level. For the recent decades its number in reservoirs of Tajikistan has significantly reduced that was mainly connected with intensive use of chemical pest-killers and defoliants.
The overall goal of the present project proposal is a complex study of bloodsucking mosquitoes and their natural enemies, elaboration of the recommendations of realization of measures on regulation of number of mosquitoes.
Study of mosquitos’ fauna and their natural enemies will be held in the nidi of endemic malaria through creation of permanent observation points as well as a mobile expeditionary detachment. Processing and systematization of data will be held in IZP. There will be also created a laboratory model of natural biocoenosis.
On the base of received data there will be created a map of malaria mosquitoes’ mass spreading and prognosis of malaria sickness in the South of Tajikistan.
In ichthyologic base of IZP in Nurek reservoir there will be held works on breeding of the larva-eating fish that will be settled in places infected with malaria plasmodia. For seasonal (drying up) reservoirs there will be elaborated and proposed measures on the use of biopreparations.
Complex measures will significantly contribute to reduction of mosquitoes number and will lead the population to a safe level. It will also lead to narrowing of the natural habitat of their spreading and termination of the nidi of malaria plasmodia infections.
In IZP they held sizable researches of bloodsucking insects. A series of Doctor and Candidate theses on this subject were defended. There was written a considerable number of scientific works. Scientific personnel and research base of the Institute is able to hold the above-mentioned works.
Participation of foreign collaborators will help the scientists of Tajikistan to integrate into the world scientific community and will let them obtain the experience of scientists of other countries in this field.