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Biodiversity of probiotic microorganisms of Armenia

#A-1948


Genotyping of Health-Promoting Microorganisms Biodiversity in Regions of Active Longevity in Armenia: a Basis for Drug Design and Functional Nutrition Production of a New Generation

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
  • AGR-FOD/Food & Nutrition/Agriculture
  • BIO-DIV/Biodiversity/Biotechnology
  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
13.05.2011

Leading Institute
Scientific and Production Center "Armbiotechnology" NAS RA, Armenia, Yerevan

Supporting institutes

  • Institute of Molecular Biology, Armenia, Yerevan

Collaborators

  • University of Aberdeen / Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, UK, Aberdeen\nCNRS / Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France, Montpellier\nRutgers University / Department of Food Science, USA, NJ, New Brunswick

Project summary

The aim of the Project: A search and collection of probiotic strains (lactobacilli, yeasts, bifidobacteria and their consortiums) from various traditional for the regions of active longevity in the Republic of Armenia lactic acid products, genotyping as well as availability evaluation for technology development for obtaining of a new generation of therapeutic-prophylactic preparations and functional nutrition products.

Lactic acid food products are the invariable part of national cuisine of the majority of peoples of the Globe. Besides, the probiotic microbial content of such products is often left unknown. National traditions of their preparations are far back in the past. In many cases, they are represented by microbial consortia formed within the space of prolonged evolution. In such consortia, lactobacilli, yeasts, bifidobacteria and some other microorganisms take a special place. Empiric observations stated their beneficial effect on the state of gastrointestinal tract and on general condition on the whole.

The studies of recent years decisively demonstrated that probiotic microorganisms (lactobacilli, yeasts, bifidobacteria) used in the composition of both the functional nutrition products and therapeutic-prophylactic preparations, restored their own microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract, which is a metabolic extracorporal organ. The significance of this organ is extraordinarily high for the macroorganism. Many diseases are initially connected with disorders of metabolism processes stipulated by the pathological changes in the microflora of human intestine. Appearance of the so-called “civilization diseases” in humans is connected with disorders (dysbacteriosis) of this extracorporal organ functions.

The yeasts were stated to be a source of sirtuin proteins regulating the processes of ageing, apoptosis; they also proved to raise stress resistance. They could be used for human active longevity enhancement.

At present, scientifically grounded use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and products of functional nutrition on their basis is, undoubtedly, one of the main strategic directions that provide health preservation and restoration, as well as prolongation of human active longevity. That is why organization of expeditions to the regions of active longevity, the search and collection of probiotic strains (lactobacilli, yeasts, bifidobacteria), their genotyping, systematics and evaluation of their aptitude for the development of technologies for obtaining of a new generation of therapeutic and prophylactic preparations and products of functional nutrition is one of the most topical global problems. This problem attracts more and more attention of the experts in the USA, EU states – Germany, France, Great Britain, Russian Federation (RF) and others. Probiotics are considered to be an alternative for antibiotics in connection with a growing threat of a wide spread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms.

The given Project is dedicated to the search, study and preservation of natural probiotic gene pool of the RA various regions and to the development of scientific approaches to its rational usage for human health strengthening and maintaining of active longevity. The Project participants: the CJSC “SRI of Biotechnology” and the Institute of Molecular Biology, NAS RA.

The project participants from the CJSC “SRI of Biotechnology” have a large experience in the work with various strains of industrial microorganisms including the strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At the Laboratory of Microbiological Technology, more than 150 LAB strains isolated from different traditional for Armenia sour milk products distinguished by their morphological and physiological features, specific growth rate and anti-microbial activity were studied. The performed laboratory studies demonstrated that purified supernatants obtained from the culture broth after the cultivation of several LAB possessed a wide spectrum of growth suppression of various pathogenic microorganisms in the range of рН 3.0-8.0. A technology for LAB cultivation on lactoserum with growth factors addition, for the isolation of antimicrobial fraction and obtaining of partially purified preparations for veterinary was elaborated. The works on the obtaining of purified preparations for foodstuff biopreservation are under way.

The main Project participants from the CJSC “SRI of Biotechnology” and Institute of Molecular Biology (RA) are highly qualified scientists, engineers, and technicians who earlier were engaged in studies on the development of the ways and means of anti-biological protection in the former Soviet Union. At present, the techniques for the obtaining of biologically active substances (amino acids, proteins, enzymes) elaborated by the experts of the CJSC “SRI of Biotechnology” are applied at the enterprises of Russia, Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, China, Germany, France.

In frames of the proposed Project, the isolation of the strains of lactobacilli, yeasts, bifidobacteria from the traditional lactic acid nutrition products from various regions of the Republic Armenia, molecular-genetic identification of the cultures, study of probiotic properties (the adaptation potential of the isolated bacteria, selection according to the tolerance signs of extreme values of temperature, рН, stability to gastric and intestinal stresses, sensitivity to antibiotics, etc.), as well as of functional properties (the interaction with plant lectins, cholesterol assimilation, anti-oxidant and anti-oncogenic activities) would be performed.

In frames of the proposed Project, autoinflammatory familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) will be used as a model of altered gut microbiota. In this part of proposed Project the nature of gut microbiome transformation that makes it pathogenic, as well as novel pathways controlling inflammation in the autoinflammatory condition such as FMF will be investigated.

FMF disease is mainly affects the populations of Mediterranean descent, including Sephardic Jews, Armenians, Arabs, and Turks. The disease is characterized by acute self-resolving attacks of fever with serositis such as peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis, with a massive influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the affected tissues.

This project proposal is the continuation of the previous project A-1055 that was supported by the International Scientific-Technical Centre (ISTC). The previous proposal was the first complex FMF study that covered genetic, microbiological and immunological aspects of the disease and it revealed many details of host-microbe interaction in a genetically susceptible host. More specifically, we found that FMF affects bacterial persity in the gut resulting in specific restructuring of its composition and metabolic imbalance.Our investigation of cytokine profile in FMF revealed T cell differentiation into the previously unrecognized Th17 lineage. Our results demonstrated the increased systemic reactivity against the commensal gut microbiota in FMF.

Work will be performed on screening of bacterial product shifts in fecal content of FMF patients for identification of potential metabolic biomarkers, which may serve as therapeutic agents; in vitro evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of commensal bacteria/bacterial products in colonocyte cell lines; verification of and selection from different candidate probiotic strains based on their capacity to downregulate the inflammatory signals induced by “pathogenic” gut.

The isolated in frames of the Project new perspective strains of the microorganisms and their consortia possessing valuable probiotic and production properties together with the producers of biologically active substances could become the Object of the Patents and know-how. Commercialization of the development would be also connected with the technology elaboration for the new generation probiotic preparations, and products of functional nutrition, mycocins and bacteriocins.

To solve the tasks stated by the Project, it is planned to use the following basic methodologies: classical microbiological methods for identification and evaluation of physiological-biochemical properties of the isolates (microscopying, evaluation of enzyme activity, study of the ability of the bacterial strains to sugar cleavage and substances synthesis, definition of the optimal temperature of fermenting); genetic, molecular-biological and analytical methods aimed at determination of a precise systematic position of the bacteria under study (amplification of genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

The collective of the Project participants has all the equipment required for a successful Project fulfillment.


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