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Bacteriological Safety in Fergana Valley

#KR-1516


Prevention of Distribution of Infectious Diseases by Transboundary Rivers of the South of Kyrgyzstan with the Purpose of Maintenance of Bacteriological Safety in Fergana Valley

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
  • AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology
  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
16.03.2007

Completion date
23.04.2015

Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M

Leading Institute
Institute of Medical Problems of Southern Branch of the NAS KR, Kyrgyzstan, Osh

Supporting institutes

  • Republican Center for State Sanitary Epidemiological Control, Tajikistan, Dushanbe\nRepublican Center of Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections / Antiplague Department, Kyrgyzstan, Osh\nNooken Sanitary and Epidemiologic Control Center, Kyrgyzstan, Massy village\nOsh Inter-District Centre of Veterinary Diagnostics, Kyrgyzstan, Osh\nMayluusuu Sanitary and Epidemiologic Control Center, Kyrgyzstan, Mayluusuu

Collaborators

  • Veterinary Laboratories Agency, UK, Surrey, Weybridge\nCanadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada, AB, Lethbridge\nUniversity of Oxford, UK, Oxford

Project summary

The purpose

Establishment of the infectious centers, researches of ways of distribution in Fergana valley and development of optimum ways of treatment and ways of maintenance of epidemic of infectious diseases with the use of local source of raw materials.

Introduction and the review

After the gaining of the sovereignty the Kyrgyz Republic should solve the numerous problems connected with the management, ecological situation, of economy, etc. One of the decision of the problems demands acceptance of urgent measures, is preservation and preventive maintenance of health of people from various kinds of epidemic of infectious diseases capable to distribute by waterway on the big territories.

In conditions of large collective management there were special agrochemical, veterinary and other services for the duly analysis of potable water, fertile soils and animals. These services have practically ceased to exist in conditions of private farmer managing. Private farmers in most cases hide absence of veterinary survey at compelled slaughter of sick cattle, at cultivation of agricultural cultures apply pesticides. Therefore, there is a deterioration of an epidemiological situation and increase of cases of infectious diseases in the republic. In this case the worse state of affairs can be observed in Southern region of the republic. Leading experts, veterinary-sanitary and antiplague laboratories basically are in capital of the republic, that is why the carrying out of regular research of a state of health of animals, water and soil in other regions are problematic one.

Natural climatic conditions of the south of the republic are differ from northern zones. There is sharply continental change of a climate in one and the same season. Climatic conditions, impurity of soil by pesticides, chemical weed-killers, alkaloid of tobacco, salts of heavy metals and radioactive nuclide, create favorable conditions for preservation, duplication in an environment and changes at a genic level of various microorganisms. Therefore in Southern region epidemics of infectious diseases are frequently observed.

On the other hand, there are a lot of natural cataclysms in Southern region (landslips, avalanches, etc.). Numerous mountain rivers located in Southern region are sources of the river Syr-Darya. Owing to natural cataclysms burial places of the centers of infectious diseases collapse, are carried away with water and get to Syr-Darya. There is a real danger of distribution of infections in the next states: Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Kazakhstan, also arises an intense interstate epidemiological status.

It is known that, the majority of microbes are a soil, water, vegetative and animal origin. They get in object of defeat from the soil, waters and air or can be transferred from sick animals. These microbes, being in a different environment, can change the bacteriological properties and to become steady against influence of disinfectants.

In this aspect the special alarm is caused with the south of Kyrgyzstan. A hot climate and the polluted environment (the raised radiation, radioactive nuclide, pesticides, salts of heavy metals, alkaloid of tobacco in the structure of the soil) create favorable conditions for growth and distributions of dangerous infectious diseases (Anthrax, a malaria, typhoid fever, a dysentery, a cholera, brucellosis, echinococcosis, and others).

Last years the cases of flash of heavy kinds of epidemic have become frequent in the south of Republic. For example, for last 10 years from 5 up to 74 cases of disease by the anthrax are annually registered in Republic and all of them are in southern region. A similar picture with a typhoid fever. Since 2002 in currents of 5-years there is epidemic of a typhoid fever in Maily – Suu city and in settlements located in flood-land of the river Maily – Suu. Thus local bacteriological laboratories cannot allocate pertaining to typhoid fever sticks from the water. It is supposed, that this factor is connected with modification of microbes as a result of influence of radioactive nuclide of uranium (according to some authors, excess of radiation in 1000 times is observed). The river Maily - Suu runs into Syr-Darya and that is why the flash of a typhoid fever is observed in settlements of Uzbekistan Republic. It is necessary to note, that if in former years the flash of typhoid fever was observed during the summer and autumn periods last years they were observed also during winter periods. Probably this phenomenon can be explained by adaptation of sticks of typhoid fever to the environment.

As an example we shall give case of flash of typhoid fever in Osh and in Osh region in 2000. That time more than 2000 people were ill by typhoid fever. It is established, that the center of an infection was hit of sewage in the river Akbuura. Frontier settlements of the next state Uzbekistan used water from the river Akbuura for cooking and owing to what there were cases of disease of people by typhoid fever that has created an intense situation at an interstate level.

The carried out researches by employees of Institute of medical problems of Southern branch NAN KR have shown, that due to climatic, geographical conditions, and also environmental contamination by various chemical-physical factors characteristic for the south of Kyrgyzstan many micro floras alter. It leads to the change of clinical current of disease and epidemic. Infectious diseases badly give in to the standard ways of treatment at a stage of development. Necessity of development of new, non-standard ways of preventive maintenance and neutralization of infectious and epidemiological sticks for the centers therefore has ripened.

At a performance of the given project we can wide use the existing methods of preventive maintenance and neutralization of infectious and epidemiological sticks in the centers and development of new methods.

Tasks of the project:

  • carrying out of bacteriological researches of soil, water, animals in the zones located in the infectious centers of southern region of Republic;
  • establishment of clinic-microbiological features of the epidemiological and infectious sticks allocated from various zones in view of working factors at a genic level;
  • carrying out of microbiological monitoring of the epidemiological both infectious centers and research of possible(probable) ways of distribution of disease;
  • the analysis and researches of clinic-microbiological features of current of infectious diseases and development of new, non-standard ways of disinfecting and preservation of epidemiological and infectious sticks;
  • generalization of the received data, drawing up of the forecast for the nearest 10-15 years and development of practical recommendations on protection of the population against infection epidemiological and infectious diseases.

Expected results:
  • revealing of a degree of influence of various factors of an environment on change, pathogenicity and stability to disinfectants of pathogenic and conditional - pathogenic microbes;
  • establishment of the centers of epidemiological both infectious sticks and prevention of occurrence of new forms for the further development of optimum ways of preventive maintenance and treatment of patients;

  • development of methods of decrease of receipt of microbes in an organism of the person and prevention of their migration on a biological chain - soil, water, an animal and the person;
  • development of optimum ways of treatment of patients, reduction of average stay of patients in the bed, decrease of a lethal outcome and physical inability of patients;
  • prevention of biological terrorism by liquidation of the epidemiological and infectious centers and decrease of intensity of interethnic and interstate relations.

The main publications on a subject
  1. Toichuev R.M.institute of medical problems. - Bishkek: Ilym, 2004.-80 p.
  2. Toichuev R.M., Nasyrov A.N.role and values of change of biocenose of gastroenteric path during adaptation in conditions of high mountains. The international conference «Physiology of development of the person » devoted to the 60-anniversary of Institute of age physiology of the Russian Open Society Moscow, November, 22-26 2004.
  3. Toichuev R.M., Borkosheva N.A., Nasyrov A.N.Zhumabaeva A.A. Biocenose of children tobacco-grower’s integument. In magazine Questions of modern pediatrics 2005. That 4. Applications ¹1. X Congress of podiatrists of Russia « Ways of increase of efficiency of medical aid to children » Moscow, February, 8-10 2005ã. P. 532.
  4. Toichuev R.M. « Problems of the Anthrax in conditions of the south of Kyrgyzstan » Infectious diseases: problems of public health services and military medicine / Materials of the Russian scientific - practical conference devoted to the 10-anniversary of faculty of infectious diseases of Army medical college S.Ì. Kirov. – SPb., VÌådÀ.-2006ã, P 290
  5. Zholdoshev S.T. «Antibiotic resistance S.THYPHI in southern regions of Kyrgyzstan» Infectious diseases: problems of public health services and military medicine / Materials of the Russian scientific - practical conference devoted to the 10-anniversary of faculty of infectious diseases of Army medical college by. S.M.Kirov. – SPb., VÌådÀ.-2006ã, P. 119.


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